1. Turn right out of the car park and follow the road in the direction of the harbour to reach Barkhouse Lane on the right.

    The port of Charlestown was an enterprise of Charles Rashleigh, initially to export copper ore from the mines from around St Austell to the smelters in South Wales. The harbour was designed by the marine architect John Smeaton whose other achievements included the Eddystone Lighthouse now on Plymouth Hoe and the pier at St Ives. Later on, Charlestown became an important port for the export of china clay.

  2. Turn right onto Barkhouse Lane and follow this to reach a wooden fence at the far end.

    After the Eddystone Lighthouse burnt down, the engineer John Smeaton designed its replacement - this time in stone - consisting of granite blocks held together with a quick-drying lime mortar of his own invention and modelled on the shape of an oak tree. The lighthouse took 3 years to build and was finally lit in 1759. The design was so effective that the lighthouse outlasted the rock on which is was built, and became the standard method of construction for lighthouses worldwide. After 127 years, the rock began to crack from the action of the waves and the lighthouse would sway when hit by large waves. After a new lighthouse was constructed on a different rock, the people of Plymouth raised money to have Smeaton's lighthouse dismantled and reassembled on the Hoe, where it still stands today. However the lighthouse base was so sturdy that it could not be dismantled and still stands on Eddystone Reef next to the new lighthouse.

  3. Go through the pedestrian gap and bear left onto the pavement with railings. Follow this the length of the road (crossing over any roads leading to housing estates on the left) until it ends in a staggered crossroads.

    Smeaton's design for Charlestown included another engineering masterpiece - a mindbogglingly long leat, the far end of which can still be seen on the west side of the Luxulyan Valley beyond the Eden Project.

    A leat in the Luxulyan Valley was constructed in the late 1790s to supply water to Charlestown Harbour, 10km away. Its source is at the Cam Bridges on the River Par. The water supply was used to keep ships afloat within the gated dock at low tide and to periodically flush out the harbour. Waterwheels on the leat provided a source of power for a number of industries in Charlestown including a china stone mill and a coal tar refinery.

    The leat system was cleaned regularly to remove debris such as leaves and branches and re-tar the wooden boards which carried the leat. This work was often done in January and February once all the leaves had finished falling. The work also included crawling in the water though the underground tunnels to clear these which must have been chilly.

  4. Turn left and follow the pavement to Ridgewood Close.
  5. Cross over the road to continue on the pavement and follow this to a junction for Porthpean beach.

    Porthpean is from the Cornish for "small cove". The Cornish word for "little" features in many place names ending -vean (or sometimes -bean as mutation of the initial consonant between a softer and harder form occurs quite a lot in Celtic languages).

  6. Turn left and follow the pavement until you reach a Public Bridleway sign on the right indicating a small path, opposite Caislin.
  7. Turn right onto the bridleway and cross over the gravel track to follow the path between the trees. Continue until the path ends on another gravel track and bear right to reach a lane.

    Lesser celandines flower along the track in spring.

    Another name for celandine is pilewort as the tubers of the plant are said to resemble piles. Based on the "doctrine of signatures" (i.e. a plant that looks a bit like something must be a cure for it), the resemblance suggested to mediaeval herbalists that celandines could be used to cure hemorrhoids. This was done by applying an ointment containing crushed celandine leaves to the relevant area. Since celandine contains a poisonous compound, some attempts to ingest celandine in an effort to cure piles have not gone too well.

  8. Bear left onto the lane and follow it to a bend beside Porthpean church.

    Golf developed in The Netherlands during the Middle Ages and was introduced into Scotland towards the end of this period where it evolved to its present form. The word golf is thought to be a Scots alteration of Dutch colf meaning "club". Golf is first documented in Scotland in a 1457 Act of the Scottish Parliament, prohibiting the playing of the games of gowf and futball as these were a distraction from archery practice.

  9. Bear right off the lane onto the track beside Ivy Cottage (directly opposite the churchyard entrance) and follow this down the driveway of Trelowen. Go through the gate into the turning area and bear right towards the garage until a kissing gate to the left of the garage comes into view, then make for this.

    The whole village of Porthpean once formed part of the Penrice estate owned by the Sawle family. The church was built as a private chapel in 1884-5 out of local stone and slate. After the death in 1971 of Mrs Cobbold Sawle, the last in the line, the church was given by the estate’s Trustees to St Austell Parish. The church is dedicated to St Levan, the Cornish patron saint of fishermen.

  10. Go through the gate and follow the right-hand side of the field uphill to reach a gap in the corner leading into the next field.

    In the mid-1980s, engineers identified ancient underwater channels criss-crossing the seabed in St Austell bay which had become filled with tin-rich sediment. However, no further exploration was done after the price of tin dropped. In recent years, the price of tin has been steadily increasing as the relatively rare metal is used in the production of electronic devices. These reserves are now being re-examined, with possible exploratory work to follow.

  11. Go through the gap into the (left) field ahead then follow along the hedge on the right to reach a granite post standing upright in the field beside a waymark.
  12. At the granite post, turn left to head downhill to the kissing gate below. Go through this and turn left onto the coast path. Follow this until you reach a stile.

    The lines of buoys out from Ropehaven are England's first offshore mussel farms. A line runs between two weights on the bottom and this is lifted to a couple of metres below the surface by the floats. The mussels are grown on ropes suspended from this which don't touch the seabed, ensuring they don't pick up grit and as many barnacles. They are naturally-occurring blue mussels which at their planktonic stage look for any suitable attachment to grow on, and attach themselves to the ropes. The ropes are initially coiled to suspend them in the top couple of metres of water where the mussel plankton (known as "spat") are most prevalent. Once the mussels begin to grow, the ropes are uncoiled to give them more space and to protect them from seabirds and other surface predation.

  13. Pass the stile and go down the steps. Then follow the path to emerge outside Porthpean sailing club.
  14. Follow the path to the road and bear right to follow this down to the beach. Walk along the top of the sea wall at the back of the beach to reach a flight of steps on the far side.

    In the years after the Second World War, once the defences had been cleared from the beach and Porthpean was once again used as a pleasure beach, a sea mine washed up one morning. As it was a hot summer's day, the local coastguard carried it into the Watch House as he knew many people would be coming to the beach. He informed the Coastguard service and that evening, the bomb squad arrived from Plymouth and cleared the beach. The mine was carried back to the beach where it was detonated and the resulting explosion went higher than the tall cliffs around the bay.

    Most of the mines used during the Second World War were triggered by sensors which detonated if a metallic object disturbed the electromagnetic field surrounding them. When the coastguard had initially carried the mine off the beach, he had been wearing his coastguard hat which had a large metal badge!

  15. Climb the steps and follow the path from the top. Continue until you climb a short flight of steps and then reach an opening on the right with a lookout tower.

    The observation tower at Carrickowel Point overlooking Porthpean beach was part of the St Austell Bay practice bombing range used by Coastal Command during WW2. The range included two floating wooden targets a couple of miles out to sea. A moving target was also towed across the bay from Fowey.

  16. Turn right and follow the path around the lookout tower. When the path forks, keep right on the outer path to reach a grassy area at the end of the headland with a picnic bench.
  17. Bear left to pass the picnic bench and join the path leading back inland. Follow this to a crossing of paths at a waymark.
  18. Turn right at the waymark and follow the path down the valley until you reach a path on the right just before the path ahead crosses a small bridge.

    Along the path to the left from the waymark, there is a substantial amount of wild garlic in the spring.

    Despite the pungent smell, the leaves of wild garlic are quite delicate in flavour so can be used quite large quantities in cooking or more sparingly within salads. They are at their most fiery early in the season.

  19. Continue ahead across the bridge and follow the path until you pass through an iron kissing gate and reach a gate on the right into Crinnis Cliff Battery.

    The small path to the right at the bottom of the valley leads to Duporth beach.

    Duporth is a development on the site of an old Butlins holiday village which itself was built on the old estate owned by Charles Rashleigh, who developed Charlestown. Duporth beach is privately-owned but the public are allowed access subject to a few restrictions (e.g. no fires) indicated on the information board. There is very little beach at high tide, but as the tide recedes, a sandy beach is revealed with areas of rock along the edges containing rockpools.

  20. Continue ahead on the coast path, or walk through the cliff battery, to reach a gap in the battery wall where the coast path descends a flight of steps.

    The gun battery was built a year after Charlestown harbour to defend the port against possible invasion during the summer months when the sea was calmer. Each winter, the cannons were taken down to Charlestown to be stored out of the elements. The coast path leading down to Charlestown is the remains of a track used by horses to transport the cannons.

  21. Follow the steps downhill, passing through a kissing gate, to reach Charlestown Harbour.

    The protected harbour at Charlestown is now used for sailing ships. The combination of the tall ships and undeveloped location has made it a popular Hollywood filming location which features in Pirates of the Caribbean and many others.

  22. Follow the lane uphill from The Pier House Hotel and Harbourside Inn to the roundabout to complete the circular route.

    Charlestown harbour is used for the filming of Truro and Falmouth harbours in the BBC's Poldark series starring Aidan Turner as Ross Poldark.

    Winston Graham published the first series of 7 Poldark novels from 1945-53 and these were set in the 18th century. A series of 5 more novels were written between 1973 and 2002 which are set in the early 19th century and follow the lives of the descendants of the characters from the previous novels.

The extraction of china clay has dramatically altered the Cornish landscape: it is estimated that 120 million tons have been extracted. For every 1 tonne of china clay, there are 9 tonnes of mineral waste products (a gritty sand of quartz and mica), which has led to the creation of large areas of tips. The now disused conical (or "sky tips") can be seen near St Austell from as far away as Bodmin Moor.

Due to the density of china clay pits, the area around St Austell has become known as "The Clays". This has dominated St Austell's more recent industrial history and to some degree masked the area's earlier history: prior to china clay, St Austell was an important centre for copper and tin mining.

China clay in Cornwall and Devon resulted from a sequence of events that began over 300 million years ago; molten rock cooled into granite: a mixture of quartz, feldspar and mica. As it cooled, the feldspar reacted with other minerals to form china clay.

The clay from Cornwall was found to be a much finer quality than elsewhere in Europe and also turned out to be the largest deposit in the world. By the mid-19th Century, 7,000 workers were employed in the St Austell area alone and by 1910, Cornwall was producing 50% of the world's China Clay.

The UK is still the third largest producer of China Clay in the world: Cornwall produces approximately 1 million tonnes of kaolin each year. Due to increasing mechanization and large amounts of production being moved to Brazil, the industry now only employs around 1000 people.

Mussels are filter feeders and their "foot" is used to generate threads which they use to anchor themselves to rocks. Mussels clump together both to create a more secure attachment to the rock and also to trap water at low tide.

Mussels are preyed on by dog whelks which dissolve a hole in their shell, through which they inject digestive enzymes which result in mussel soup. Mussels have evolved a defensive strategy whereby they lassoo invading whelks with their threads and tether them to the rocks, where the whelks starve to death.

Fortunately, consumption of mussels by humans is a little less fraught with danger provided you don't harvest them between May and August: a species of plankton that is poisonous to humans can be hoovered up by the mussels in this period. Make sure you collect more mature mussels of at least 50mm in length as smaller ones are less good to eat. It's worth studying the tides to get the beach for a low spring tide as this is when you'll find the biggest, juiciest mussels. Ideally, take a bucket and bring your mussels home in clean seawater. Once harvested, soak them for a few hours somewhere cool in clean saltwater to allow them to purge any sand (don't submerge them in freshwater as this will kill them). Sort through them, tapping any that are open on a surface to see if they close shut. Discard any that remain open or any that are damaged (they have perished and are not safe to eat). Before cooking, mussels must be thoroughly cleaned and rinsed and the "beard" (threads that secure the mussel to the rock) should be removed.

Barnacles are crustaceans, related to crabs and lobsters. After a planktonic stage, they settle on a rock and never move again. To facilitate genetic transfer between isolated individuals, barnacles have extraordinarily long penises⁠. It is thought barnacles probably have the largest penis to body size ratio of the animal kingdom.

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