- OS Explorer: 109 (scan QR code on right to order from Amazon)
- Distance: 4.4 miles/7 km
- Grade: Moderate
- Start from: The Hurlers car park
- Parking: Hurlers Carpark. Satnav: PL145LW
- Recommended footwear: waterproof boots
- The Hurlers stone circles, cairns and other remnants of ancient Neolithic civilization
- The Cheesewring - a weather-sculpted granite tor, and other tors on Stowe's Hill
- Panoramic views across Bodmin Moor and surrounding countryside from Stowe's Hill
- Engine houses and other relics of the South Phoenix Mine
- Pretty woods and countryside around Henwood, Knowle Farm and Newlands
- Cream teas and local ales in the village of Minions
- From the car park, head away from the road to the steps at the back left corner. Go up the steps and bear right, passing the hedge on your right, to reach the centre stone in the lower of the two stone circles.
These stone circles are called "The Hurlers".
The Hurlers is a group of 3 stone circles, near the village of Minions on the eastern flank of Bodmin Moor, which date from the Bronze Age: around 1500 BC. The name is said to derive from a legend in which a group of men were turned into stone as a punishment for playing a game of Cornish hurling on the Sabbath.
In 2013, the strip of grass between the centres of the stone circles was excavated to uncover a 4000 year old cobbled stone pavement joining the two circles. Archaeologists describe this as a "unique" structure.
Many of the folk names for standing stones such as the Hurlers, Pipers and Nine Maidens are based on petrification legends, which generally involve punishment for some form of Pagan fun such as dancing on a Sunday. It is thought that the early Christian Church encouraged such myths in an attempt to prevent old Pagan practices occuring at these sites.
- Continue ahead to the centre of the other stone circle.
It is not fully understood what function the stone circles served, although excavation of some monuments has shown an association with burials. Some circles also appear to have been used to mark the passage of time and seasons, which is indicated by the alignment of stones with landmarks, to mark important solar or lunar events such as the sunrise and sunset at the winter or summer solstice. Where excavated, they have been found to date from the Late Neolithic to the Middle Bronze Age (2400-1000 BC).
- Bear right to where the well-worn path merges with another path at a raised bank.
Some of the earliest mining remains are shallow pits dug to home in on and then mine lodes (mineral veins) at the surface of the bedrock. These are known as shode workings as pits were initially dug to locate displaced fragments of ore within the soil known as shodes. Further pits were then dug to follow these fragments back to the main lode that they had broken off. Once the lode was located it was worked using a line of pits along it.
The adjective "shoddy" is thought to have been derived from shode, initially via the textile industry for recycling fragments of usable cloth from rubbish. Later, when garments made from this material were found to disintegrate, it came to mean "inferior quality".
- Bear right towards the summit of this gentle hill, slightly right of the rocky peak in the distance, and head to a the base of a grassy mound at the summit.
The mound is an ancient neolithic tomb known as Rillaton Barrow. The entrance to the tomb is on the east side, to your right as your approach.
Rillaton Barrow is a neolithic tomb located near Minions, on the east side of Bodmin Moor. When it was excavated in 1837, numerous artefacts were found alongside the human remains, including a bronze dagger, beads, pottery, glass and - most notably - a gold vessel known as the Rillaton Gold Cup. Radiocarbon dating of the artifacts places them around 2300 BC and research has linked the style of this cup with the East Mediterranean, showing evidence of a trading link between Cornwall and the Mycenaean Empire over 4000 years ago. The cup became lost after its discovery but turned up years later in the dressing room of King George V as a receptacle for his collar studs. It is now on show at the British Museum, though it still belongs to the Royal Collection. An exact copy may be seen in the Royal Cornwall Museum at Truro.
- Bear right around the mound then follow a path towards the rocky hilltop, which passes a hedge on the right, until you reach the corner of the fence on your right.
Barrows are megalithic tombs constructed with stone supports and covered with a mound of earth. Archaeology has revealed that the ancient tribes of Cornwall practised burial of their dead. Important individuals, such as kings or tribal chiefs, were often buried in monumental tombs to indicate their significance. Valuable items such as weapons and jewellery were often buried along with the dead. However, many barrows have been subject to grave robbers over the ages, meaning much of this treasure has been lost.
- Continue ahead, towards the leftmost rock stack on the hill, until you reach a rough track with a grassy bank behind it.
- Bear left onto the track, following it until a path departs from the right, at the end of the mound on the right.
There are 33 regions in England designated Areas Of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) which were created in 1949 at the same time as the National Parks. In fact the AONB status is very similar to that of National Parks. There is a single Cornwall AONB which is itself subdivided into 12 sections. 11 of these are sections of the coastline and the 12th is Bodmin Moor.
- Turn right along the path and follow the well-worn track until it ends at the base of a bank.
- Bear right on the path up the bank to reach a fence. Turn left and follow the rocky path along the fence on the right until it bends away sharply to the right.
On the opposite side of the bank, which can be reached by bearing right along the bottom of the bank, is a rock outcrop with a hole with a date carved on a stone to the right of the hole.
Daniel Gumb is described in a letter from 1814:
Daniel Gumb ...was bred a stone-cutter... By close application Daniel acquired, even in his youth, a considerable stock of mathematical knowledge, and, in consequence, became celebrated throughout the adjoining parishes. Called by his occupation to hew blocks of granite on the neighbouring commons, and especially in the vicinity of that great natural curiosity called the Cheesewring, he discovered near this spot an immense block, whose upper surface was an inclined plane. This, it struck him, might be made the roof of a habitation such as he desired; sufficiently secluded from the busy haunts of men to enable him to pursue his studies without interruption, whilst it was contiguous to the scene of his daily labour. Immediately Daniel went to work, and cautiously excavating the earth underneath, to nearly the extent of the stone above, he obtained a habitation which he thought sufficiently commodious. The sides he lined with stone, cemented with lime, whilst a chimney was made by perforating the earth at one side of the roof... The top of the rock which roofed his house served Daniel for an observatory, where at every favourable opportunity he watched the motions of the heavenly bodies, and on the surface of which, with his chisel, he carved a variety of diagrams, illustrative of the most difficult problems of Euclid, etc. These he left behind him as evidences of the patience and ingenuity with which he surmounted the obstacles that his station in life had placed in the way of his mental improvement.
- As the fence bends away to the right, depart from the fence and follow the rocky path passing to the right of the tree, then bear right uphill to the base of the closest rock stack.
This stack of rocks is known as "The Cheesewring".
The Cheesewring is a tor on Stowes Hill near Minions. The tor gets is name because it is topped with a natural rock formation that looks like the press with a stack of weights that was used to make cheese (and also cider as the apple pulp was known as "cheese"). The cheesewring was a well-known landscape feature by Tudor times and it featured in large illustrations in the margins of Cornwall maps at the end of this period. The granite slabs, which appear to have been balanced, were created by erosion over many thousands of years.
- Continue to follow the path uphill and bear left to the plateau on the right side of the highest rock stack.
The word granite comes from the Latin granum (a grain), in reference to its coarse-grained structure. Granite forms as a pluton - an intrusive igneous rock, formed from a big blob of magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth, resulting in the large crystals. Granite mostly contains slightly acidic chemical compounds, and consequently there is nothing to neutralise acids from plant decay and carbon dioxide dissolved in rainwater, resulting in acidic moorland soils.
- Continue ahead along the path to where it ends at a wall of loose granite rocks.
The granite wall is part of Stowe's Pound.
Stowe's Pound is hilltop enclosure situated on Stowe's Hill near Minions. It comprises two defensive walls made of granite rubble and dates from the early Neolithic period (4000-3500 BC). Inside the walls are two Bronze Age cairns, a stone round house and over 100 house platforms.
- Carefully cross over the loose granite wall to the other side. Follow the path along the ridge until you reach a pile of large rocks on the far side of the hill.
- Bear right down the hill in the direction of the rocky tor, making for the lane at the bottom of the hill near a group of houses in front of the tor.
The rocky hill ahead is Sharp Tor.
Tors are the result of millions of years of weathering. They started out as a molten blob of rock beneath the surface, which cooled and crystallised into granite, cracking (mostly vertically) as it cooled. Hot water circulated through the cracks, reacting chemically with the rocks and depositing minerals. As the softer rocks above were worn away fairly quickly, the reduction in pressure from the weight of the rock above caused the granite to crack (this time more horizontally). Water, acidic from carbon dioxide in the air, circulated in the cracks, causing weathering. Repeated freezing and thawing during Ice Ages caused blocks of varying sizes to break off. The "basins" on the tops of some of the tors are also the result of repeated freezing and thawing of water which has collected on the surface.
- Turn right onto the lane and follow it past the houses until the lane ends at a junction.
- Turn left at the junction towards Henwood and follow the lane until it reaches the village green, with a signpost and red telephone box.
Henwood was first recorded in 1327 and despite hen, meaning "old" in Cornish, the name is thought to be mediaeval English and simply mean "Hen's wood".
- At the village green, continue ahead along the lane towards Upton Cross until you reach a Public Footpath sign on the right, just past a sharp left bend in the lane.
- Turn right at the sign and follow the short grassy track to the gate. Cross the stile beside it and head straight across the field towards the gate opposite, where there's another stile.
- Cross the stile and head straight across the field to a stile on the right of the gate.
- Cross the stile then follow the left hedge of the field, heading for a stile in the fence about 20 metres to the right of the far corner.
- Cross the stile and follow the path ahead through the woods. Cross the footbridge then bear right, following the path into a field, beside a disused stile.
- Bear right across the field, heading towards the nearest telegraph pole. Follow the power lines to a pair of poles holding a transformer about 50 metres to the right of the large metal barn. Then follow the rough track left around the corner to a gateway.
- Follow the track through the gateway as it bears left, passing a number of farm buildings. Continue along the track past the buildings until you reach a junction with a track on the right with a waymark on the gateway opposite.
The last building on the left belongs to The Cornish Cheese Company.
The Cornish Cheese Company is based at Knowle Farm near Upton Cross. Though only started in 2001, the Cornish Cheese Company won the prestigious World Champion Cheese 2010 with its Cornish Blue cheese, beating 2629 entries from 29 countries. There's a small shop on the site where passing visitors can buy cheese.
- At the junction, turn right and follow the track until it ends at a junction with another track, just past some farm buildings.
Knowle Farm was recorded in 1474 as Knoll - the Old English word for "hillock" that is still in use today. It's possible that this is a reference to Notter Tor, to the north of the farm, near Henwood.
- At the junction, bear left and follow the concrete track away from Newland house and farm until you reach a metal gate on the right with a Public Footpath sign.
Newlands Farm is another example of the mediaeval English names in this part of Cornwall. The name of the farm was first recorded in 1474, so it was some point before this at which it was considered as "new" farmland.
- Go through the gate and follow the right hedge to reach a rough stone-and-metal stile in the corner of the field, with some wire below to stop animals getting beneath.
- Climb over the railings of the stile and then follow along the fence on the right. Eventually you'll see a gate in the fence you are approaching - head to this.
- Go through the gate, or climb the wooden ladder alongside if the gate is tied shut, and follow the right hedge around the field to reach a gateway in the far right corner.
- Go through the gateway and follow the right hedge to a gate.
- Go through the gate then turn immediately left at the waymark up a steep path with wooden steps. Follow this until the path forks.
- Take the right fork to reach the ruins of a building. Follow the path along the right side of the building towards the engine house. Keep left around the engine house to reach the steps into it.
The remains of the building and engine house are part of the South Phoenix Mine complex.
South Phoenix Mine is a complex of disused engine houses and quarries near Minions. Mining for tin and copper began in 1836 and continued until 1914. The engine house over Houseman's Shaft has been turned into the Minions Heritage Centre.
- From the engine house, head to the white waymark. Follow the waymarked path until it merges onto another path.
- Keep right and follow the path along a wall on the left until it ends at a track.
- Bear left onto the track, following it until it ends at a lane.
The large hill on the left is Caradon Hill.
Caradon Hill is situated on the east edge of Bodmin Moor. The hill has a 371 metre summit and the antenna on the top broadcasts TV & radio coverage as far as Truro, Bude, Plymouth and Barnstaple. The name is thought to originate from the Cornish word car for fort. The slopes are dotted with the remains of engine houses and the area was once famous for its copper mines, which were discovered relatively late in Cornwall's mining history. The South Caradon Copper mine was the largest copper mine in the UK during its heyday in the late 1800s. In an account documented in the early 20th Century, it was described:
On Saturday nights after pay-day, the populous villages of Caradon Town, Pensilva, Minions and Crows Nest were crowded with men, and resembled in character the mining camps of Colorado and the Far West.
- Cross the lane and on the opposite side, follow the one of the paths either side of the small tree opposite the junction (the two paths merge a little further up). Follow the path uphill until it merges onto a well worn track. Turn left onto the track and follow this to 4 large boulders where it forks.
- Keep right at the fork, following the path until it merges with another path.
- Bear left onto the main track and keep right at the fork to reach a T-junction with a gravel track.
- Turn right and follow the track until it ends at a junction with another track.
At this point you can turn right along the track to take an optional diversion to the Minions Heritage Centre.
Minions Heritage Centre is located in the restored Houseman's Engine House of the South Phoenix mine. The building contains a permanent exhibition on the history, ecology, archaeology and mining heritage of the surrounding area.
- Turn left and follow the track until it ends at a road in the village of Minions.
Minions is a small village on the south-east corner of Bodmin Moor. Near the car park, one of the engine houses of the South Pheonix mine has been converted into the a heritage centre which interprets the history of the surrounding landscape. The area surrounding Minions offers a wealth of archaeological interest from early Bronze Age to the Tin and Copper Mining which finished early in the last century. Most of the village is over 300m, and Minions claims to be the highest village in Cornwall, rivalling St Breward.
- Bear right along the road through the village of Minions, following it until just past the houses on the right.
The Cheesewring Hotel in Minions claims to be Cornwall's highest pub, at an altitude of 995ft. It opened as a coaching inn in 1863 and is now a hotel and restaurant serving a variety of local Cornish food and ales.
- Turn right into the car park to complete the walk.
The source of the River Seaton is in Minions near the Cheesewring Hotel and it connects with two tributary streams running through St Cleer. Due to the copper mining activity around Caradon Hill, the tributary streams contain dissolved copper salts where the groundwater drains from old mines or percolates through waste tips. The level of copper in the main river is not high enough to prevent fish living in it but it does restrict the invertebrate species that are able to live in the river and so the fish population is lower than surrounding rivers as there is less for them to eat. The river runs for just over 10 miles before reaching the sea at Seaton beach.
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