Circular walk from Dunmere to Penhargard returning via Bodmin Jail

Dunmere, Penhargard and Bodmin Jail

A circular walk along the River Camel from Dunmere through bluebell woods and fields to Penhargard, and along an ancient route lined with wildflowers to Bodmin's historic Jail.

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The walk starts by following the Camel Trail through woodland from the Borough Arms to Dunmere Falls. It then climbs through fields to the farm at Penhargard and from there the route follows an old turnpike road into Clerkenwater and then along woodland tracks and lanes to Bodmin Jail and back to the Borough Arms.


  • Two relatively short sections of the path from Outlands are susceptible to gorse and bramble growth. If you have secateurs, take them along to cut back any encroaching on the path.

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Vital statistics

  • OS Explorer: 109
  • Distance: 6.1 miles/9.9 km
  • Steepness grade: Moderate
  • Recommended footwear: walking boots; wellies in winter (passes through a farmyard)

OS maps for this walk

OS Explorer 109 OS Explorer 109 (laminated version)

Click or tap on map for more info (blue=laminated)


  • Pretty riverside scenery at Dunmere
  • Views over Dunmere Woods and surrounding countryside from Penhargard
  • Carpets of bluebells in spring at Clerkenwater
  • Bodmin's 18th Century Jail
  • Snowdrops, bluebells and woodland wildlife at Bodiniel in spring

Pubs on or near the route

  • The Borough Arms

Adjoining walks


  1. From the bottom of the car park, walk down the path to the Camel Trail and turn right. Follow the trail under the bridge until you reach a junction.

    The Camel Trail is a recreational walking and cycling track along the track bed of an old railway running from Wenfordbridge to Padstow. The railway, where the Camel Trail now runs, was originally built in 1831 by local landowner, Sir William Molesworth of Pencarrow. The line from Wadebridge to Wenfordbridge, with a branch to Bodmin, was intended to carry sand from the Camel estuary to inland farms for use as fertiliser. Later, the railway was used to ship slate and china clay from inland quarries to ships in Padstow and also transport fish, landed in Padstow, to London and other cities. The last passenger train was in 1967 and freight finally ceased in 1983, when a need to invest in new track forced closure of the line.

  2. At the junction, turn left, signposted to Camelford and Wenfordbridge, and follow the path to a junction with a milestone for Poley's Bridge.

    During March and April, primroses flower along the trail.

    During Victorian times, the building of railways allowed primrose flowers picked in the Westcountry to be on sale in London the next day. Picking was done on a large scale but eventually became unfashionable, being seen as environmentally destructive. However all the evidence gathered suggests as long as the flowers were picked and the plants were not dug up, the practice was sustainable.

    The National Cycle Network is coordinated by the charity Sustrans. It began with one route in Bristol in 1984 and now consists of around 15,000 miles of signposted cycle routes known as National Cycle Routes. These each have a number and are constructed using a combination of roads typically chosen to have light traffic and some traffic-free tracks which are open to cycles.

  3. Turn right, past the house, and continue to where a lane crosses.

    National Cycle Route 3 runs 338 miles from Bristol to Land's End. The route is a mixture of lanes, byways and some tracks not open to road traffic including the upper section of the Camel Trail from Wenfordbridge to Dunmere.

  4. Cross the lane, and follow the trail until the lane crosses it again.

    Yellow celandine flowers also can be seen along the trail in early spring.

    Celandine flowers close each night and open each morning. This is controlled by a circadian rhythm, so they really are "going to sleep" at night and "waking up in the morning". It is likely that this has arisen to protect the internals of the flowers from any frost during the night as they begin flowering in March when frosts are still common.

    The bicycle was invented in the 19th Century, initially without any form of propulsion - pushed along with feet and free-wheeled downhill.

    By the 1840s, pedals had been fixed to one of the wheels resulting in propulsion albeit difficult to control - in 1842 a gentleman in Scotland "bestride a velocipede... of ingenious design" was fined five shillings for knocking over a young girl.

    By 1885, bicycles with a chain drive and pneumatic tyres resembling modern bicycles were being manufactured in England. These were known initially as "safety bicycles".

    More than a billion bicycles have since been produced and since the 1970s the production of bicycles has increased substantially above that of cars - there are now more than double the number of bicycles produced than cars each year.

  5. Cross the lane, back onto the trail, and continue to where a track crosses the trail.

    The River Camel runs for 30 miles from Bodmin Moor to Padstow Bay, making it the longest river in Cornwall after the Tamar.

    The River Camel has been fished for salmon and sea trout for centuries and the first royal charter was granted in 1199. In 1750, there are records of rights available on payment of a fee to the Duke of Cornwall to take salmon by use of barbed spears. Needless to say, these rights have now been revoked although even as recently as the 1980s, there are stories of salmon poachers with barbed garden forks beneath bridges along the Camel.

    Salmon fishing is still popular and there is a salmon hatchery, where locally-caught salmon are bred. The resulting eggs are hatched and grown for a year in a protected environment before being released to boost the wild salmon population in the River Camel and Fowey.

  6. Cross the track and follow the trail, past the house and the weirs, until you reach a plaque in memory of a fisherman.

    In July 1847 a large waterspout came in off the Atlantic and collapsed over Davidstow Moor where the sources of both the River Camel and River Inny rise. A wall of water 12-18 feet high swept down the Camel Valley demolishing all but two of the bridges. The solidly-built mediaeval Helland Bridge survived despite tree trunks piling against it. Wadebridge survived by being secured with ropes and chains by (brave) men in boats. Many years after the flood, pieces of hay and straw could still be seen in the trees 20 feet above the river at Dunmere.

  7. From the plaque, follow the trail to cross a road junction and continue until you reach a house.

    By using their tail as a parachute, squirrels are able to survive falls from high trees. This allows them to attempt risky jumps between treetops that don't always work out. They are one of the few mammals that can (but not always) survive an impact at their terminal velocity i.e. if a squirrel jumped out of an aeroplane, it may well survive.

  8. Opposite the gate of the house, take the narrow footpath to the right and follow the path uphill to a bend on a track.
  9. Take the waymarked footpath on the opposite side of the track and follow this until it eventually emerges on another track.

    Slate is formed when clay or volcanic ash is compressed under millions of years of deposits to form shale, and then the shale is subject to a (relatively low, in geological terms) heat and pressure transforming it into a harder, less-crumbly rock - slate. The heat and pressure can arise from an intrusion of molten magma into the sedimentary rocks or from the friction associated with collision of tectonic plates. Like shale, slate also has a layered structure, splitting into thin sheets which have proven ideal for shedding water from roofs without collapsing them under the weight of stone. However, the direction that the slate splits into layers is often not the same as the direction of the layers that were laid down in the original shale. This is because a reorganisation of the mineral components occurs during the metamorphosis, based on the direction that the pressure was applied. In other words, it's possible to have stripey slates.

  10. Cross the track onto the track opposite and follow this until you reach a gate on the left with a waymark.

    Like most trees, conifers produce resin to heal wounds. However, conifers also have resin ducts which routinely release it to reduce insect and fungal attacks. As well as including insecticide and fungicide compounds, the resins can also chemically disguise the tree from insects, attract their predators and even emulate hormones to disrupt insect development.

  11. Go through the gate and head for the top of the hill. Once you reach the top, head for the waymarked gate in the middle of the hedge.

    The Ramblers Association and National Farmers Union suggest some "dos and don'ts" for walkers which we've collated with some info from the local Countryside Access Team.


    • Stop, look and listen on entering a field. Look out for any animals and watch how they are behaving, particularly bulls or cows with calves
    • Be prepared for farm animals to react to your presence, especially if you have a dog with you.
    • Try to avoid getting between cows and their calves.
    • Move quickly and quietly, and if possible walk around the herd.
    • Keep your dog close and under effective control on a lead around cows and sheep.
    • Remember to close gates behind you when walking through fields containing livestock.
    • If you and your dog feel threatened, work your way to the field boundary and quietly make your way to safety.
    • Report any dangerous incidents to the Cornwall Council Countryside Access Team - phone 0300 1234 202 for emergencies or for non-emergencies use the iWalk Cornwall app to report a footpath issue (via the menu next to the direction on the directions screen).


    • If you are threatened by cattle, don't hang onto your dog: let it go to allow the dog to run to safety.
    • Don't put yourself at risk. Find another way around the cattle and rejoin the footpath as soon as possible.
    • Don't panic or run. Most cattle will stop before they reach you. If they follow, just walk on quietly.
  12. Go through the gate (if chained, locate the oval link and press the hinged section inwards to unclip) and continue ahead across the field until you can see the far hedge, then head for the protruding corner and keep the hedge on your right to reach a gate.

    If there are sheep in the field and you have a dog, make sure it's securely on its lead (sheep are prone to panic and injuring themselves even if a dog is just being inquisitive). If the sheep start bleating, this means they are scared and they are liable to panic.

    If there are pregnant sheep in the field, be particularly sensitive as a scare can cause a miscarriage. If there are sheep in the field with lambs, avoid approaching them closely, making loud noises or walking between a lamb and its mother, as you may provoke the mother to defend her young.

    Sheep may look cute but if provoked they can cause serious injury (hence the verb "to ram"). Generally, the best plan is to walk quietly along the hedges and they will move away or ignore you.

  13. Go through the gate and cross the field to the gate opposite.

    Although it's obvious that you should ensure any gates that you open, you also close, what about gates you find that are already open?

    If the gate is fully open then leave it alone as it may well be providing livestock access to a water supply, and by closing it you could end up killing them.

    If the gate is ajar or swinging loose and not wedged or tied open then it's likely that the gate was left open by accident (possibly by another group of walkers). Properly closing the offending gate behind you will not only bring joy to the landowner but you can feel good about saving lives in a car swerving to avoid a cow in the road.

    If you encounter a gate doubly-secured with twine that can be untied or a chain that can be unfastened, it's normally there because naughty animals have managed to undo the gate themselves at some point (e.g. by rubbing against the bolt), so retie/fasten it afterwards.

  14. Go through the gate and follow the grassy track between the fence and hedge to reach a gate into a farmyard.

    Since the 1960s, consumption of milk in the UK has fallen from around 5 pints per person per week to around 3. The recent rise in popularity of veganism has also contributed to a drop in demand for dairy products. However, these downward trends have been partly offset by milk solids used in processed foods including chocolate and also a growth in cheese consumption in recent years.

  15. Go through the gate and turn right through another gate onto a track. Follow the track, keeping the barn on your left, until you reach the farmhouse then bear left along the front of the barn to a junction in the track.

    Penhargard Castle, in the Camel Valley below Penhargard Farm, is the remains of an Iron Age fort approximately 90 metres in diameter, perching on a steep slope overlooking the Camel Valley. There was a main circle of ramparts around the enclosure which were up to 15 feet high in places. On one side, there is an additional outer wall covering the most exposed two-thirds of the defences. The interior was horseshoe-shaped due to an additional rampart cutting through it, and has been terraced into two distinct levels due to the steep slope. A track ran from close to the castle entrance and joined the road near the entrance gate to Penhargard Farm.

  16. Turn right and follow the track past the farmhouse, and between fields, until it eventually ends on a lane.

    The fortified settlement known as Lower Helland Castle was situated slightly further up the Camel Valley from Penhargard. This was a large elliptical enclosure, surrounded by a single line of ramparts. Evidence has been found that the track to the nearby Penhargard Castle crossed the River Camel at a ford between the two.

  17. Turn right on the lane and follow it into the valley until you reach a sharp bend to the left, where a track joins the lane.

    In early spring, the verges of the lane have an impressive display of bluebells.

    When photographing bluebells, the flowers that look blue to your eye can end up looking purple in photos.

    The first thing to check is that your camera isn't on auto white balance as the large amount of blue will cause the camera to shift the white balance towards reds to try to compensate.

    Another thing to watch out for is that the camera's light metering will often over-expose the blue slightly to get a reasonable amount of red and green light and the "lost blue" can change the balance of the colours. You can get around this by deliberately under-exposing the photo (and checking there is no clipping if your camera has a histogram display) and then brightening it afterwards with editing software.

    Trees grow from a microscopically thin layer of cells that sits between the bark and the wood. On the outside it produces the inner bark (phloem) and on the inside it produces the outer section of wood (xylem).

  18. Keep left to stay on the lane and follow it downhill until you reach Old Laundry Cottage on the right.

    The lane through Clerkenwater is thought to be along an ancient route from the river crossing at Hellandbridge to Bodmin. It would have been one of the main roads into North Cornwall in mediaeval times.

  19. Turn right onto the track between the buildings and follow this to a ford, crossing the footbridge and heading uphill on the other side of the stream. Continue on the track until it ends in front of a barn.

    Bodmin is one of the oldest towns in Cornwall, with a religious foundation in the 6th Century by St Petroc. It was the largest town and main religious centre in Cornwall in 1086 when it was documented in the Domesday Book:

    The Church of St Petroc holds Bodmin. There is 1 hide of land, and land for 4 ploughs. There are 30 acres of pasture and 6 acres of scrubland. St Petroc has 68 houses and 1 market. The whole is worth 25s.

    Bodmin received its first Royal Charter in 1563 from Elizabeth I which established it as a self-governing town. However, it wasn't until early Victorian times that it took over from Launceston as the County Town of Cornwall. In late Victorian times, the administrative functions began to move to Truro once the Great Western Railway arrived and the cathedral was built. Despite Truro being the cathedral city and administrative centre, Bodmin is still the County Town of Cornwall.

  20. At the barn, take the lane to the left leading uphill and follow it round a bend and onwards until you reach a junction.

    Originally, the religion of the Cornish Britons was Celtic polytheism - a pagan, animistic faith, assumed to be led by Druids. Celtic Christianity was introduced to Cornwall in the year 520 by Saint Petroc, a Brython from the kingdom of Glywysing, and other missionaries from Wales, as well as by Gaelic monks and holy women from Ireland.

  21. At the junction, keep left to stay on the lane. Follow it until it eventually emerges in front of Bodmin Jail.

    Bodmin Jail is a historic former prison situated in the town of Bodmin, on the south-west edge of Bodmin Moor. Bodmin Jail was built in 1779 by prisoners of war and was a milestone in prison design and progressiveness. It was light and airy and it was the first British prison where inmates had individual sleeping cells. There was hot water and an infirmary for sick prisoners. It was separated into three isolated areas for felons, misdemeanants and debtors. Males and females were also segregated. Prisoners worked to make products which the governor sold and paid them from the profits.

    In 1861, the jail was rebuilt as even despite being extended, the original building was not large enough to accommodate all those "doing time". Towards the end of the First World War, national treasures including the Domesday Book, Coronation Rolls and all State Papers were stored in the Jail. The Jail finally closed in 1927 and, since then, there has been no prison in the county.

  22. At the Jail, turn right and follow the lane until you reach a sign for Lower, Middle and Upper Bodiniel.

    Joan Wytte, known as the "Fighting Fairy Woman of Bodmin Town", was unjustly condemned as a witch in the 18th century and died in Bodmin Jail. For many years, her skeleton hung unceremoniously in the Museum of Witchcraft at Boscastle. When the museum was taken over, the new owner wanted to give her a proper burial. However, as an alleged witch, the Church would not allow her to be buried on consecrated ground. Therefore her grave is just outside the perimeter of the churchyard.

  23. At the sign, turn left and follow the lane to a sharp bend and then downhill past Middle Bodiniel to reach Lower Bodiniel Cottage.

    In late winter there are some nice displays of snowdrops towards the end of this lane.

    Snowdrops are a member of the onion family. Although it is often thought of as a native British wild flower, the snowdrop was probably introduced in Tudor times, around the early sixteenth century.

    From April to June, white flowers of Greater Stitchwort can be seen along hedgerows and paths. The petals are quite distinctive as each one is split almost all the way to create pairs - most of the flowers typically have 5 pairs. The name comes from alleged powers to cure an exercise-induced stitch. Other common names include Star-of-Bethlehem (due to the shape and perhaps Easter flowering time) and Poor Man's Buttonhole for budget weddings. It is also known as Wedding Cakes but that may be more due to the colour than anticipation of what a buttonhole might lead to. The seed capsules can sometimes be heard bursting open in the late spring sunshine which gives rise to another name: Popguns.

    The streamers on swallows tails serve an aerodynamic function, assisting tight turns to catch insects. Experiments with sand martins found that they could be "pimped-up" by adding artificial streamers to their tails which afforded them increased manoeuvrability in a flight maze. The suggestion for why swallows have evolved streamers and not sand martins is partly the speedier insects that swallows need to catch and also that sand martins live in burrows and this would risk breaking off one streamer, leading to unbalanced flight.

    Cornwall had a number of its own peculiar units of measurement:

    • A Cornish Gallon was a unit of weight (10 lbs) rather than volume. A Cornish Apple Gallon however was 7 lb, rather than 10 lb. Given the strength of Cornish Rattler, this is probably wise.
    • When counting fish, a Cornish hundred was, in fact, 132.
    • Finally, a Cornish Mile is 1.5 miles. Though you may suspect otherwise when walking up a steep hill, our walk distances are not measured in Cornish Miles.
  24. At Lower Bodiniel Cottage, turn right onto the driveway just before the cottage and follow the track leading from this until it ends in a gate.

    Wild garlic grows along the track and is visible in spring.

    If cows eat wild garlic, this flavours their milk. Whilst this is definitely not what's wanted for tea or cornflakes, the butter made from it is more useful. This means of producing garlic butter became popular in Switzerland in the 19th Century.

    The first record of the settlement of Bodiniel is from 1256. The name is from the Cornish for "dwelling at a fortified place".

  25. Go through the gate and bear left across the track to a stile with a footpath sign. Cross this and then follow along the fence beside the solar farm on your right to reach a gate and stile at the far side of the field (unhook the electric fence spring via the insulating handle).

    Solar panels are usually able to process 15% to 22% of the sun power into usable energy and have a lifetime of about 25 years. Improving efficiencies and the falling costs of production has made solar power one of the cheapest forms of energy.

  26. Cross the stile and the track to a footpath down into the woods. At the first fork, keep right and at the second, keep left to keep the bank on your right. Keep following the path downhill until it emerges onto a track.

    The wall along the left side of the woodland contains a large rabbit warren; you may encounter a few startled rabbits on your way through the woods if no-one has been down here for a few hours.

    During mediaeval times, rabbit was decreed by Pope Gregory I as "not meat" so it could be eaten during Lent. This accelerated the spread of rabbits through European monasteries in the middle ages. In fact, there are no barriers in the world's major religions to eating rabbit which is also considered both halal and kosher. From Elizabethan times, rabbit farming became common practice in Britain and it was not until the 1950s (when rabbits were associated with myxomatosis) that its popularity as a food declined sharply.

  27. Turn left onto the track and follow it a short distance to reach the Camel Trail, immediately after the gate. Turn left and follow the trail to retrace the first part of your route past "St Anne's Cottage B&B" and one milestone at a sharp bend to a second milestone at the junction with the signpost.

    The jay is a member of the crow family recognisable by the flash of electric blue on their otherwise brown body. Their natural habitat is woodland, particularly oak.

    Like squirrels, jays collect and bury acorns as a winter food store. Once jays were the main means by which oaks colonised new locations as a population of 65 jays can bury (but not always find again afterwards) half a million acorns in a month. Jays prefer to bury their acorns in open ground which is an ideal spot for a new oak tree.

  28. At the junction, turn right towards Wadebridge and walk back to Dunmere Halt, then follow the path on the left back up to the car park.

    During winter, from November to March, winter heliotrope is visible along the edges of roads and paths as carpets of rounded heart-shaped leaves.

    From mid November to January, the plants produce spikes with pale pink scented flowers. The scent resembles marzipan i.e. almond and vanilla.

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