Porthcurno, Porthgwarra and Gwennap Head circular walk

Porthcurno, Porthgwarra and Gwennap Head

The bridleway between direction 44 and 45 is temporarily closed for repairs. Whilst this is in place, at direction 43 turn right and follow the track to the road, then turn left to return to the car park.

A circular walk from Porthcurno, passing the Minack Theatre, St Leven's Holy Well, Porthchapel and Porthgwarra beaches, to Gwennap Head where the English Channel meets the Atlantic and the Runnelstone Reef has claimed so many ships that divers are unsure where the wreckage is from.

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The walk starts at Porthcurno and climbs the cliff to the Minack Theatre with spectacular views over Pedn Vounder. The coast path then forms the route via Porth Chapel and St Levan's Holy Well to the tiny cove of Porthgwarra, now famous for the nude swimming scene in Poldark. The walk continues around Gwennap Head passing the abyss formed by a collapsed cave and coastguard lookout before returning across the fields via St Levan's legendary stone in the churchyard.


  • Route includes paths close to unfenced cliff edges.

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Vital statistics

  • OS Explorer: 102
  • Distance: 5.4 miles/8.7 km
  • Steepness grade: Moderate-strenuous
  • Recommended footwear: Walking shoes, or trainers in summer

OS maps for this walk

OS Explorer 102 OS Explorer 102 (laminated version)

Click or tap on map for more info (blue=laminated)


  • Sandy beaches at Porthcurno, Chapel Cove and Porthgwarra
  • Spectacular coastal scenery
  • Views of the Runnelstone buoy, Wolf Rock + Longships lighthouses and The Scilly Isles
  • Wildflowers in late spring and early summer
  • Wildlife including seals, birds of prey and choughs
  • Ancient relics including St Levan's well, chapel and stone.
  • Telegraph museum at Porthcurno

Adjoining walks


  1. Make your way to the gate at the bottom of the car park marked "Emergency Vehicle Access" and follow the path starting beside the information board near the toilets towards the beach to reach a junction of paths with a granite boulder with an "access to beach" sign.

    From 1870 to 1970, Porthcurno valley was a hub of international communications and, for a time between the First and Second World Wars, was the largest submarine cable station in the world. Up to two million words per day could be transmitted using up to 14 cables. It was chosen over Falmouth to reduce the risk of damage to cables by shipping. Even today, fibre-optic cables land at Porthcurno, connecting the UK to the internet backbone.

  2. The walk continues to the right, but the beach can be reached to the left if you want to go there first. Follow the path to the right and keep right to cross a stream and join the coast path.

    In common with most of the other beaches around Penwith, the sand at Porthcurno is composed of fragments of seashell. Larger pieces of shell, and some intact shells, are usually washed up along the high-tide line. These mostly seem to be venus clams which are very pale in colour and may explain the particularly white sand around this coast. Another factor is that, unlike the slate in much of the rest of Cornwall, the granite here does not weather into minute flakes which mix into the sand and darken the colour.

  3. Bear left onto the coast path and follow it past the building to a waymark, where a path descends from the Minack Theatre.

    Cornwall bounces by around 4 inches every time the tide goes in and out. As the tide rises, the extra weight of water on the continental shelf deforms the Earth's crust; as the tide goes out, it springs back. The tidal range is greatest on the southwestern side of the British Isles and so Cornwall is one of the bounciest places in Britain.

  4. The route ahead involves climbing up steep steps up the cliff which have spectacular views but are quite exposed. If you are uncomfortable with this then turn right at the waymark, follow the path to reach a Minack Theatre sign, then follow the signs to a wooden Coast Path sign, beneath which is a kissing gate. Otherwise continue on the path to the next waymark.

    The name Minnack is from the Cornish word meynek.

    In English we often add a -y ending to a noun to turn it into an adjective; for example "rock" becomes "rocky". For many of the nouns imported from French, we add "-ic" (acidic, magnetic, artistic...). The equivalent in Cornish is to add -ack or -ek to the end of the word. Thus meynek is "stony" (men is stone), stennack means "tinny" (sten is tin).

  5. Carefully climb the steps to reach the entrance to the Minack Theatre.

    The Minack open-air theatre was created by one remarkable woman - Rowena Cade - who financed, planned and physically built the theatre. Initially she worked as apprentice to two Cornish craftsmen to cut stone for the stage and seating, with one wheelbarrow lost over the edge of the cliff in the process. The first performance was "The Tempest" in 1932 which was lit by car batteries and headlights. From this point until her death, Rowena worked relentlessly on improving the theatre, which included carrying sand on her back from Porthcurno beach to make concrete.

  6. Continue ahead past the entrance to reach the car park and cross this to reach a kissing gate beneath a wooden Coast Path sign.

    When wreckage from a Spanish Freighter washed onto Porthcurno beach, Rowena single-handedly carried twelve 15ft beams up to Minack. When Customs officers on the beach enquired as to whether she had seen the timber, Rowena admitted that she had collected some wood that morning. Concluding that such a frail-looking woman could not have lifted what they were looking for, they went on their way. "I didn't tell them a lie now did I?" Rowena remarked as she built the new dressing rooms from the beams.

  7. Go through the gate and follow the path across the headland until you reach a junction of paths near a corner in the fence on the right.

    At the junction, a path leads to the left onto Rospletha Cliff.

    The headland of Pedn-men-an-Mere is known locally as "Wireless Point" as a 170ft mast with a large antenna was erected here in 1902 by the Eastern Telegraph Company to monitor the early activities of the potential competitor, Marconi. The antenna base and tether points are still visible on the headland. The conclusion from the monitoring was that Marconi's newfangled wireless technology was no threat to the cable telegraph companies. In fact, Marconi's shortwave wireless system turned out to be so successful that it almost bankrupted the cable companies in the 1920s.

    The smaller of the two boulders on the end of the headland is what is known locally as a "logan stone". The weight of a teenager or adult on the edge closest to the land is sufficient to make the huge boulder rock back and forth.

  8. Keep right at the first junction then immediately left at the second to follow the path towards a rock outcrop overlooking the sea. Continue following the coast path until you reach a waymark at a junction of paths with steps to the right.

    The Runnel Stone is a pinnacle reef situated roughly a mile south of Gwennap Head which is a notorious shipping hazard and was responsible for the grounding of at least 30 steamships between 1880 and 1923 alone. The reef used to break the surface at low water until 1923 when a 6,000 ton steamship called The City of Westminster, which was laden with maize from South Africa, ploughed into the reef with such force that the top 20 feet of the reef was broken off. The ship didn't fare too well either and sank, but fortunately all aboard were saved by the Sennen and Penlee lifeboats. The bow and stern of the wreck are still identifiable by divers but there is so much wreckage from other ships that it's hard to tell which is which.

  9. Turn right up the steps and follow the path over a footbridge to a junction of paths with St Levan's Well on the left.

    Porthchapel is a small cove between Porthcurno and Porthgwarra, and should not be confused with Chapel Porth which is near St Agnes. Like Porthcurno, Porthchapel is a beach of shell sand, situated between two granite headlands. Porthchapel faces south, making it a sun trap, and is a nice spot for swimming when there isn't a swell running, although it is advisable to stay within the lee of the headlands as exceptionally strong currents run along this area of the coast.

  10. At the junction, continue ahead up the steps to reach a flat rocky area at the top of the headland. Continue ahead on the coast path to reach a junction of paths with a waymark a little way along the left-hand path.

    St Levan's chapel was built on platforms cut into the cliff face and could date as far back as the 8th Century, making it one of the oldest, if not the oldest Christian building in Cornwall. It's likely that the spring forming the Holy Well predates the chapel and could have been a sacred spring in pre-Christian times. In the 18th Century, the well building still had a roof but little remained by the end of the 20th Century; the walls were partially reconstructed in 2003. Water from the well is still used for baptisms at Levan's Church. The Holy Water was thought to be a cure for toothache and eye diseases, and sleeping the night by the well was said to increase its powers. Perhaps during a freezing night in a howling gale on a cliff edge, the toothache seemed a less pressing concern!

  11. Bear left in the direction waymarked and follow the path to a line of boulders crossing the path. Climb over these and descend the rocky coast path to reach a yellow waymark at a junction of paths.

    The Cornwall Seal Group Research Trust gather information about the numbers of seals in each location to study migration behaviour. Each seal has a unique pattern of spots which is like a fingerprint, allowing individuals to be identified so photos are also very useful.

    If you see one or more seals, take a photo if possible but never approach the seals to take a photo - use a zoom from a clifftop. Send the location, date, number of seals and photos if you have them to sightings@cornwallsealgroup.co.uk.

  12. When you reach the waymark, keep left at the junction and follow the path downhill to reach a red waymark opposite a high stone wall.

    In Cornwall, cliffs erode at an average rate of between roughly 3cm - 30cm per year depending on the hardness of the rocks and location. In reality this often happens in infrequent sudden collapses rather than as a steady, gradual process. It was found that one massive storm in 2014 caused around 100 times the average amount of erosion. There are obvious implications from climate change leading to more frequent or more intense storms.

  13. Turn left at the waymark, in the direction of the red arrow, to reach a track. Follow the track past the tunnel to the beach (which you may want to visit on the way past) to a junction with a footpath signpost.

    The beach at Porthgwarra is privately-owned but well-behaved members of the public are permitted access. The tunnel to the beach was dug by miners from St Just to provide easier access for fishermen to the beach and so farmers could transport sand and seaweed from the beach by horse and cart to fertilise the fields. The cove is quite sheltered between the headlands, but swimming beyond the headlands is inadvisable as there are extremely strong currents here where the English Channel meets the Atlantic.

    As you come out of the tunnel on the beach, on your left is a second tunnel which leads to a neighbouring rocky cove. This provided convenient access to the "hulleys" which were built into the rocks. These were similar in principle to a "keep pot", used to store crabs and lobsters for a few days prior to taking the catch to market. However unlike keep pots which remain offshore below the water, these were tidal and took the form of a cage built from wood with a solid wooden top (which provided shade) containing a trapdoor.

  14. Turn left at the signpost and pass between the buildings to another signpost. Take the path directly ahead of this, signposted to Land's End. Follow the path through a kissing gate to reach a fork in the path.

    Porthgwarra was developed as a small fishing hamlet during the 18th and 19th Centuries. The slipway was built in 18th century and boats were hauled with a wooden capstan similar to the one that still survives at Penberth Cove. The buildings surrounding the beach date from the 19th Century and were originally fish cellars and net stores.

  15. Keep left at the fork and follow the path around the headland to rejoin the other path at a waymark. Then continue until you reach another fork in the path at a second waymark.

    Keep a look out for choughs which can sometimes be seen along the coast here.

    After several decades of extinction, a pair of choughs settled in 2001 on the Lizard Peninsula. Since then, the birds have successfully bred and been joined by a few more incoming birds, and the population has steadily grown and spread further across Cornwall. Each Cornish chough is fitted with one leg ring in the colours of St Piran's flag and two other colours on the opposite leg to identify them.

  16. The walk continues on the right-hand path. The path to the left leads to the blowhole; if you want to have a look then return to this point to continue without missing the Runnel Stone markers. Continue on the right-hand path to reach another fork in the path.

    Gwennap Head is the most southwesterly point (i.e. not the most southerly, or the most westerly, but the most "on the corner") of the British mainland and is effectively where The Channel meets The Atlantic. A wind speed of 118mph was recorded at Gwennap Head in 1979. At the time of writing (2020), this is higher than anything recorded elsewhere in Cornwall, or in England.

    The headland has been known as Gwennap Head only since 1888. Before this, the headland was known as Tol-Pedn-Penwith which is Cornish for something along the lines of "Hole Head of Penwith", referring to the blowhole in the cliff leading into a large sea cave.

  17. The paths to the right lead to the Runnel Stone markers if you want to have a closer look before continuing. Keep left to stay on the main stony path and reach the Coastguard Lookout.

    The pair of cones on Gwennap Head are daytime navigation markers, erected in 1821, indicating the position of the Runnel Stone. The innermost marker is painted black and white and when this is completely obscured by the outer red cone, the observing ship would be directly on top of the Runnel Stone. The objective is therefore always to be able to see the black and white marker.

  18. Walk around the outside of the Coastguard Lookout and follow the coast path across the headland and into a bay. Follow the path up from the bay to reach a fork at the top of a small headland, with a larger headland directly behind.

    The coastguard station on Gwennap Head was built at the start of the 20th Century and was in service by 1910. When a French fishing boat was wrecked at the foot of the cliffs, it was realised this was invisible from the one-storey station so the second storey was added. Due to cost-cutting in the Coastguard service, the station was closed in 1994. Shortly after this, it was taken over by the National Coastwatch Institute and reopened in 1996.

    In March 1905, the Liverpool ship Khyber had travelled all the way from Melbourne with a cargo of wheat and was heading to Falmouth. It was caught in a severe gale blowing from the southwest and this together with the loss of most of the sails made it impossible to clear the Lizard. The captain therefore anchored off Porthgwarra at 10 pm, waiting for the storm to pass. At 7 am the next morning, the anchor cable snapped and the vessel was driven onto the shore by the wind at Porthloe Cove near Gwennap Head. Within fifteen minutes, it had been reduced to matchwood. Only three of the 26 crew survived.

  19. At the fork, take the right-hand path. Follow the path to reach a kissing gate in a stone wall.

    Wolf Rock is a pinnacle seven miles southwest of Gwennap Head which rises more than 60 metres to break the surface. The rock earned its name from the howling sound caused by gale force winds blowing through fissures in the rock.

    In the 1830s, a beacon was built on the rock which has survived into the 21st Century. The beacon consists of a metal cone, just under 5 metres in diameter and height, constructed of iron plates and filled with cement rubble. The difficulties of building this were enormous: during 5 years, there were only 302 hours during which work could be carried out. Work on a 25 metre lighthouse began in 1861 and took 8 years to complete. It is constructed of granite quarried at Lamorna Cove and until 1988, it was manned.

  20. Go through the kissing gate and take the left-hand path at the fork. Follow this to reach another fork in the path shortly after the two paths rejoin.

    The Scilly Isles lie 28 miles off Lands End and can be seen with the naked eye on a clear day. Scilly has been inhabited since the Stone Age and the inhabitants originally spoke the Celtic (Cornish) language. It is thought that possibly even as recently as Roman times, the 55 islets were once part of one large single island that has since been flooded by rising sea levels. During low spring tides, it is still possible to wade between some of the islands.

  21. Keep left at the fork to follow the more scenic path around the headland to where the two paths rejoin.

    Land's End is the most westerly point on the English mainland and is consequently the last place that the sun sets on mainland England. It is 5.73 degrees west of the Greenwich Meridian and since each 15 degrees is an hour of time difference, Land's End is 22 minutes and 28 seconds behind London. It's therefore possible to drink a couple of glasses of wine watching the sun set whilst all the while it's been dark in London. The official Cornish name Pen an Wlas means "End of the Earth". The earliest record of a name is Penwith Steort from 997 which is Old English for "End of Penwith". As the name was by non-Cornish speakers, they probably didn't realise that Penwith already meant "extreme end".

  22. Continue ahead to cross a stream and climb up the other side of the valley until you reach a small grassy path departing to the right towards a fenced wall.

    The Longships Lighthouse is located just over a mile off Land's End on the highest of the islets known as Carn Bras. The original tower built in 1795 was 40ft high, perched on the 39ft high rock but despite the lantern being nearly 80ft above the sea, it was sometimes obscured by the huge waves off Lands End. A new taller tower was therefore constructed starting in 1869 and completed in 1873 and was manned until 1988. The current lantern emits a white flash seaward, but red-tinted glass colours the light for any vessel straying to the headlands to the north or south.

  23. Take the right-hand path and follow it parallel to the wall on the right until the path ends at a gate.

    In 1898, the Longships lighthouse was almost obliterated by an off course ship. The SS Bluejacket ran up the reef and its remains now lie in the shallows. The captain left course instructions with the first mate and then retired to his quarters. On passing Wolf Rock, the mate asked the captain for further instruction but the captain was reluctant to return from his quarters. The inexperienced mate decided to steer directly at the Longships lighthouse with predictable consequences. The captain was charged with neglect of his duties. A reason was not stated, but amongst those saved by the Sennen lifeboat was the Captain's wife.

  24. Go through the gate and follow the grassy path between the hedges to reach a cottage.

    Dragonflies were some of the first winged insects to evolve, around 300 million years ago in the "age of amphibians" before the dinosaurs. Fossils of early dragonflies have been found with wingspans of up to two feet across.

    Blackberries are high in vitamin C, K and antioxidants. The seeds, despite being a bit crunchy, contain omega-3 and -6 fatty acids and further enhance blackberries' "superfood" status.

    As well as producing seeds both sexually and asexually, brambles can also clone themselves to create daughter plants either via underground stems (rhizomes) or by the over-ground stems rooting where they meet the ground.

  25. Follow the track ahead, away from the cottage to reach a waymark at a junction.

    Exactly why butterflies were associated with butter is a bit of a mystery. One theory is that they were seen hovering over pails of milk and thought to be stealing or protecting the butter. Another is that the yellow brimstone was the species for which this name was first devised.

    Gorse seeds each contain a small body of ant food. The seeds also release a chemical which attracts ants from some distance away. The ants carry the seeds to their nests, eat the ant food and then discard the seeds, helping them to disperse.

  26. Turn right at the waymark, as indicated by the red arrow, and follow the track towards a farm to reach some stone steps with a waymark just before the first barn on the right.

    The farm at the junction is Higher Bosistow. Further along the lane to the left is Lower Bosistow.

    The higher of the two farms is first recorded in the 13th Century as Bodestou. The building has been rebuilt and modified over the years but parts of the current building may date back to the 17th Century. In the 18th Century, the farm was bought by a wealthy landowning family. One of their descendants in the 19th Century decided to build a more elegant residence to reflect his perceived status and this is the Lower Bosistow farmhouse (his parents remained in the upper farmhouse).

  27. Climb the steps and follow the left hedge to a gateway.

    The stink from decaying cabbages is due to sulphur compounds which it stores in its leaves, ready for the production of seeds later on. The compounds are also more concentrated in the plant if it has been deprived of water. These compounds are also released from the plant when leaves are boiled - the longer it's cooked, the more cabbage smell. The silver lining is that it's thought that the smelly compounds may possibly have anti-cancer properties. Whilst that's being researched a bit more, blanching or braising cabbage is a less smelly way to cook it.

  28. Go through the gateway and bear right into the right-hand field. Cross the field diagonally to a gateway in the corner of the right hedge.

    The Ramblers Association and National Farmers Union suggest some "dos and don'ts" for walkers which we've collated with some info from the local Countryside Access Team.


    • Stop, look and listen on entering a field. Look out for any animals and watch how they are behaving, particularly bulls or cows with calves
    • Be prepared for farm animals to react to your presence, especially if you have a dog with you.
    • Try to avoid getting between cows and their calves.
    • Move quickly and quietly, and if possible walk around the herd.
    • Keep your dog close and under effective control on a lead around cows and sheep.
    • Remember to close gates behind you when walking through fields containing livestock.
    • If you and your dog feel threatened, work your way to the field boundary and quietly make your way to safety.
    • Report any dangerous incidents to the Cornwall Council Countryside Access Team - phone 0300 1234 202 for emergencies or for non-emergencies use the iWalk Cornwall app to report a footpath issue (via the menu next to the direction on the directions screen).


    • If you are threatened by cattle, don't hang onto your dog: let it go to allow the dog to run to safety.
    • Don't put yourself at risk. Find another way around the cattle and rejoin the footpath as soon as possible.
    • Don't panic or run. Most cattle will stop before they reach you. If they follow, just walk on quietly.
  29. Cross the stile beside the gate (or go through the gateway if open) and cross the field towards the barns. As you approach, bear left to reach a stile about 20 metres to the left of the gate.

    The site with the dishes over the hedge to the left is known as Skewjack, after the name of the neighbouring farm.

    Skewjack was formerly the RAF Sennen radar site. In the 1970s, the Lands End Radio maritime station moved here and a surf village (self-catering accommodation) was also based here. The site is now used for the British terminus for the Fibre Optic Around the Globe project.

  30. Cross the stile and turn left onto the track. Follow this a short distance to a lane and turn right. Follow the lane past the farm and past a footpath sign on a bend to reach a second Public Footpath sign above a stile.

    The settlement now called Arden-Sawah was recorded in 1296 as Arganseuwyth. The first part of the name is from the Cornish word for silver (arghans). The second part is less certain but may be from aweth meaning "watercourse".

  31. Cross the stile and follow along the right hedge to a gateway on the far side of the field.

    Both navelwort's Latin name and common name are based on its resemblance to a belly button. Other common names include wall pennywort and penny pies due to the shape and size resembling an (old) penny.

  32. Go through the gateway into the field on the right-hand side. Follow along the left hedge then cross the field to the gap opposite.

    In fields with crops where the footpath doesn't run along the edge, if there is a well-trodden path then follow this to avoid trampling any more of the crops. If there appears to be no path through the crops then you do have a right to walk through the crop but stick as close as possible to the line of the path to avoid damaging any more of the crop than strictly necessary. Alternatively, you can follow around the edges of the field to avoid trudging though the crop.

  33. Go through the gap and cross the field towards the church tower to reach a stone stile.

    The granite rocks here result in naturally quite acidic soils.

    In the 1800s, using turnips in a crop rotation was a popular means of enriching the nitrogen content of the soil. However, this crop also depletes the lime content of the soil and so the practice was less common in Cornwall than elsewhere in the country. Where turnips were grown, this could well have further fuelled the demand for lime-rich shell sand to be brought inland by horse, the railway along the Camel, or via Bude canal.

  34. Cross the stile and head straight across the field to a gateway.

    A flock of starlings and also the spectacular flight formations of the flock are both known as a "murmuration". The flocks may include other species of starling and sometimes species from other bird families. As with fish shoaling, flying in unison creates safety in numbers. The whirling, almost hypnotic display makes it hard for predators to focus to target one bird. Grouping together also offers a number of other advantages such as keeping warm at night and sharing information e.g. good sources of food.

  35. Go through the gateway and follow the right hedge to reach a stone stile in the corner of the field.

    Researchers have found a recessive gene which appears to turn normal 3-leaf clovers into the 4-leaf version. Normally this is masked by the 3-leaf gene but environmental conditions can promote the 4-leaf form. Some domestic varieties have also been selectively bred to increase the proportion of 4-leaf plants. Genetically-engineered four leaf clovers are now a possibility with some farms in the USA reportedly already using genetic modification to churn-out thousands of plastic-sealed "lucky" charms per day.

  36. Cross the stile and follow the right hedge to another stone stile in the corner of the field.

    The stiles in Cornwall that consist of rectangular bars of granite resembling a cattle grid are known as "coffen" (coffin) stiles. These often occur on footpaths leading to churches such as the Zennor Churchway. The mini cattle grids are fairly effective at containing livestock and were significantly easier for coffin-bearers to navigate than stiles crossing walls. They are more frequently found in West Cornwall but there are a few in East Cornwall such as those on either side of Advent Church.

  37. Cross the stile and bear left to a stone stile in the middle of the left hedge.

    Whilst moles look a little like mice, they are not rodents and are highly adapted to digging and living in tunnels. Using their curved claws, they can dig 15 feet of tunnel in an hour and typically extend their network by around 60 ft per day. Moles also have twice as much blood as mammals of a similar size and a special form of haemoglobin that allow them to tolerate high levels of carbon dioxide in the low-oxygen environment within their tunnels.

  38. Cross the stile and follow along the right hedge to reach a wooden stile.

    The nutritiousness of nettle leaves makes it a preferred food plant for the caterpillars of many common butterfly species including the red admiral, tortoiseshell, peacock and comma.

  39. Cross the stile and follow the path past the cottages to emerge onto a lane, opposite the church.

    The churchyard of St Levan is thought to date back to the 9th or 10th Century and an original church of wood and thatch may have been replaced by one built of stone before the Norman conquest. In the 12th Century, a stone church was built using Norman techniques and elements of this survive today, including a Norman font which dates from the beginning of the 12th Century. In the 15th Century, the building was extended and the tower was added.

  40. Cross the lane to the church and go up the steps towards the church. Turn left and follow the path to an opening into a field with a coffin rest at the top of the churchyard.

    In St Levan's churchyard, near the porch, is a large boulder in two pieces known as St Levan's stone. It is thought that the stone was originally associated with Pagan fertility rites before Christianity reached Cornwall. When the Christian church adopted it, a legend was created that St Levan broke it in two with his staff whilst making the prophecy about the end of the world:

    When with panniers astride
    A pack horse can ride
    Through St Levan stone
    The world will be done
  41. Exit the churchyard and follow the right hedge of the field to a pedestrian gate in the top hedge.

    Rabbits were originally from the Iberian peninsula and were brought to Britain by the Normans and kept in captivity as a source of meat and fur. Although grass is their principal natural food, rabbits are able to survive on virtually any vegetable matter and with relatively few predators, those that escaped multiplied into a sizeable wild population.

  42. Go through the gate and follow the grassy track across the middle of the field towards the buildings to reach a gateway.

    The stone cross at Rospletha dates from the mediaeval period and seems to be in its original position beside the footpath to the churchyard.

    There are over four hundred complete stone crosses in Cornwall and at least another two hundred fragments.

    In the mediaeval period, stone crosses were sometimes placed by the road or path to mark the route to the parish church. Farms and hamlets were usually linked to the church by the most direct and level route. Crosses were also placed along routes of pilgrimage. Both of these have evolved to become some of today's Public Rights of Way.

  43. Go through the gateway and turn left. Follow the track to a gateway leading out of the settlement.

    Granite is the most common igneous rock found at Earth's surface and also the oldest - thought to be formed up to 300 million years ago.

  44. Go through the gate and follow the track downhill to a pair of gates. Go through the gate on the right and continue on the track to reach a road.

    The magpie is believed to be one of the most intelligent of all animals. The area of its brain used for higher cognitive function is approximately the same in its relative size as in chimpanzees and humans. Magpies can count, imitate human voices, recognise themselves in a mirror and have been observed regularly using tools to keep their cages clean. It has even been suggested that magpies may feel complex emotions, including grief.

  45. Cross the road to the gap opposite. Then follow the small lane ahead to reach the Telegraph Museum.

    During the Second World War, Cornish miners dug a series of tunnels to create an underground bomb-proof and gas-proof building, housing all the telegraph operations at Porthcurno. This also included a secret escape tunnel leading to a concealed entrance in a field. In total, 15,000 tons of rock were excavated and an office space was created in the excavated area complete with a pitched roof to shed seepage, a suspended ceiling and plastered walls. Porthcurno is ranked alongside Bletchley Park as one of the 6 key sites that were instrumental in ending WW2.

    Known as "The Tunnels", the dry space at constant temperature proved to be the perfect environment for the sensitive telegraphy equipment and so operations stayed there after the war and the equipment continued to be upgraded until the 1970s. It now forms part of the Porthcurno Museum of Global Communications and houses the main museum displays.

  46. Turn right down the steps at the front of the museum to return to the car park and complete the circular route.

either as a GPS-guided walk with our app (£2.99) or a PDF (£1.99)

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