Circular walk from Delabole to Lanteglos

Delabole to Lanteglos

A circular walk through bluebell woodland, fields and along back lanes from Delabole to Camelford's parish church at Lanteglos returning via the Iron Age forts of Castle Goff and Delinuth Camp.

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Starting from Delabole quarry, the route goes through Helland Barton woods to Trewalder, and then along the River Allen from Treforda to Lanteglos church. The return route passes the hill forts of Castle Goff and Delinuth Camp, before returning to Delabole via Deli woods.


  • During summer the path from Treforda can get overgrown. Take a stick, and secateurs if you have them, to clear your way.

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Vital statistics

  • OS Explorer: 109
  • Distance: 5.6 miles/9 km
  • Steepness grade: Moderate
  • Recommended footwear: walking boots

OS maps for this walk

OS Explorer 109 OS Explorer 109 (laminated version)

Click or tap on map for more info (blue=laminated)


  • Delabole Quarry - once the largest man-made pit in the world
  • Pretty woodland at Helland Barton, with bluebells in spring
  • Celtic churchyard at Lanteglos with a collection of ancient crosses
  • Remains of Iron Age hill forts at Castle Goff and Delinuth Camp
  • Winding country lanes and tracks with pleasant views over surrounding countryside
  • Variety of wildlife along the River Allen


  1. Walk back towards Delabole, through the gateway of the car park entrance, and turn immediately left down a lane. Follow the lane until you reach a track on the left, leading from the back of the crescent and marked with a public footpath sign.

    Delabole Quarry is over a mile in circumference and was once the deepest man-made pit in the world. It is England's oldest slate quarry; the first written records of a slate order date from 1314 and slate almost certainly from Delabole has been found in prehistoric settlements on Bodmin Moor. Delabole slate is noted for its uniform colour, durability and imperviousness to rain, making it ideal for roofing. There is a visitor centre with some interesting historical photos including the Duke of Windsor (then Prince of Wales), plummeting down the tram line into the quarry.

  2. Turn left onto the track and follow this around a bend. Continue until you see a pedestrian gate on the right at a kink in the track.

    Aluminium plant grows along the right side of the track.

    Yellow Archangel is a native plant and member of the dead nettle family (and it's also known as the Golden Dead Nettle). The flowers are pale yellow, hence the first part of the name. The second part of the name (including the angelic association) is because it looks quite like a nettle but doesn't sting.

    A garden variety of yellow archangel known as "aluminium plant" (due to silvery metallic areas on its leaves) has escaped into the wild where it is spreading rapidly. It has been deemed so invasive that it is illegal to plant in the wild.

  3. Go through the gate on the right, and follow the path to a gap leading back onto the track.

    According to the "Glossary of words in use in Cornwall" compiled in 1880 by Thomas Quiller-Couch, someone who made a living from the slate tips at Delabole was known as a hollibubber.

  4. Go through the gap and bear left to take the waymarked track with a sign for Helland Barton. Follow this until you reach a fork in the track.

    The UK is one of the windiest places in Europe and considered as one of the best places in the world for wind power. Over 10% of the UK's energy already comes from wind power (which rises to around 40% during windy months) and it is now one of the cheapest sources of electricity. Wind turbines last for about 20-25 years until the moving parts wear out and they need to be replaced.

  5. Follow the track on the left through the gate, if open. Otherwise, walk a few paces along the right-hand track to the Helland Barton Farm sign and go through the waymarked kissing gate onto the left track. Follow the track until it passes through a gateway in a hedge.

    The second part of the Latin name of red campion - dioica ("two houses") - refers to the plants' gender. Some plants are male and others are female. The male plants' flowers can be recognised from five yellow stamens sticking out from a protruding ring in the centre of the petals. The female plants' flowers have no protruding ring and instead have 5 curly white stigmas. These produce a white froth to trap pollen.

    The settlement of Helland Barton may have the same name as one near Bodmin, but it is for different reasons. Whilst the one at Bodmin is thought to have its origins in the Cornish words hen and lan (meaning "old church"), this one is from the Middle English words meaning "hay land"; it was recorded in 1345 as Haylond.

  6. Go through the gate (or the kissing gate next to it if closed) and follow the track until it bends sharply right at an intersection of paths and tracks.

    Sycamore is a member of the maple family which is why the leaves look a bit like the Canadian flag. Although sycamore doesn't have the striking red autumn colour of other maples, the young leaves and developing seeds are a vivid red colour which is caused by similar red anthrocyanin compounds.

  7. At the junction, take the small path ahead, just to the left of the track leading towards the barn. Follow this down through the woods until you reach a pair of granite gateposts.

    In Elizabethan times, starch made from the bulbs was used to stiffen collars and cuffs in clothing. The ruffs that were highly fashionable at the time would have needed a lots of starch to prevent them flopping. The toxins in bluebell sap might also have had the desirable property of preventing the starch encouraging the formation of mould.

    The inner bark of the tree carries sugars created by photosynthesis down from the leaves to feed the rest of the tree. The inner bark dies over time to produce the outer bark which protects the living part of the tree.

  8. At the granite gateposts, continue straight ahead along the path until you reach a gate.

    The woodland contains a range of broadleaf trees including oak, beech and hazel.

    Hazel has evolved to be pollinated by the wind. The catkins give the wind access to the pollen and the pollen grains themselves repel each other so they do not clump together and are individually carried on air currents. Insect-pollinated plants have instead involved sticky pollen that bees can collect more easily.

  9. Go around the gate at the end of the path and cross the stream. Follow the lawn ahead between the houses to reach a waymark beside a driveway.

    As you might have guessed, Newhall is another settlement with its origins in the English rather than Cornish language, although the concept of "new" is somewhat relative: it was recorded in 1305 spelt Niwalle. There was also a mill here at one time.

  10. Bear right onto the driveway and follow this a few paces to merge onto another track. Follow the track downhill until it ends on a lane.
  11. Turn left onto the lane, towards Trewalder, and follow through Newhall Green to a T-junction.

    The settlement of Trewalder dates from early mediaeval times and was recorded in 1280 as Trewaleder. The name is from the Cornish word gwalader, meaning "lord", which was also used as a personal name.

  12. At the T-junction in Trewalder, turn right. Follow the lane for three-quarters of a mile past Bodulgate Farm until you pass Little Treforda and reach Treforda Farm.

    The "herringbone" style of walling built with tightly packed alternating diagonal slate courses, is unique to Cornwall's heritage.

    Traditionally, hedges (stone boundary walls) were built with whatever was cleared out of the fields, whilst buildings were constructed from stone that was quarried and cut. On a long wall, the herringbone sections are often between "towers" of flat-laid slate (built from the larger and squarer stones) which helped to prevent the wall slumping sideways.

  13. Follow the concrete driveway into Treforda Farm, passing through the parking area to the right of the Treforda Farm sign to a pair of wooden gates.

    Given it begins with "Tre-", Treforda may appear to be a name of Cornish origin but in 1304 it was recorded as Atte Ford which is Middle English for "at the ford". The name appears to have been adjusted to sound more Cornish afterwards.

  14. Go through the gate on the right and follow the track to reach a stile.

    Hazelnuts can be found beneath the trees in September and October and are a favourite with squirrels so you'll need to forage those that haven't already been nibbled. Once harvested, the nuts need to dried before shelling and eating. Wash and dry the nuts first to reduce the chance of them going mouldy. Then lay them out on something where the air can circulate and dry them for 2-4 weeks. An airing cupboard is a good place. You can tell that they are ready when the nuts rattle in their shells. Once shelled, the nuts can be stored in a fridge or even frozen for a couple of years.

    Less active woodland management has led to a decline in hazel as larger woodland trees gradually form a dense canopy that blocks out the light, out-competing the hazel. Grey squirrels have also contributed to the decline by eating so many of the nuts that fewer now successfully germinate.

  15. Cross the stile and follow the left hedge of the field to reach a gap in the corner of the wall on the far side.

    The footpath here is graded "silver" so if it is starting to get overgrown, please report it to Cornwall Council so it can be cut.

    To report an overgrown path, on the directions screen in the app tap on the menu next to the direction number for the problematic path (or tap on the direction number on the map screen to get the menu) and select Report Footpath Issue. The app will use the direction number to work out the parish and path number at that location and then create an email to Cornwall Council’s Countryside Team so they can contact the relevant Parish Council. If possible, take photos and attach them to the email as that will help the countryside team to see how bad it is and prioritise it.

    Footpaths in Cornwall are graded "gold", "silver" and "bronze" (bronze paths are normally dead-ends that don't link up with other paths).

    For parishes that take part in the Local Maintenance Partnership, gold paths are normally cut routinely once or twice each year. Routine cuts on gold paths are typically done in May/June, and any second cuts are usually in July - September.

    Paths graded as silver are cut at the discretion of the Parish, so these in particular need to be reported to the Parish Council (via the Countryside Access Team - - who have the contact details for each parish council) if they start to become overgrown. Also gold paths which happen to be in parishes who don't participate in the scheme are less likely to get a routine cut, but the Countryside Team can cut these themselves if they get badly overgrown.

    Bracken releases toxins into the soil which inhibit the growth of other plants, and the shade created by its large leaves and its thick leaf litter also makes it hard for other plants to compete. This and avoidance by grazing animals makes it quite difficult to control, particularly in steep areas where mechanised cutting or ploughing is difficult. Treading by livestock can reduce bracken's competitive advantage, particularly during winter when frost can attack the roots.

  16. Go through the gap in the wall and follow along the bottom of the field, stepping over fallen tree trunks as necessary, to reach a gate and stile in the bottom-left corner.

    Across the fields to your right is the tiny hamlet of Helstone. In the Domesday survey of 1086, Helstone was recorded as having 40 brewers. It's likely some of the demand for their produce was from Camelford, which was a busy market town at the time.

  17. Cross the sequence of 3 stiles and then cross the meadow to a gap in the middle of the far hedge.

    Deer can sometimes be seen in the woods along the river.

    Red and Roe deer are the two truly native species of the six found in the UK and both have pointy, branching (rugose) antlers. The Red deer is the largest of the species and has a characteristic large white V on its backside whereas the Roe deer just has a small white patch.

    The fallow deer was introduced by the Normans and has flat, elk-like (palmate) antlers and an inverted black horseshoe surrounding a white patch on its rear end.

    In the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, three "exotic" Asian species (munjac, sika and Chinese water deer) were introduced. These all have quite rounded ears whereas the European species all have pointy "elf-like" ears.

    Roe deer, Fallow deer and Red deer are all present in Cornwall and the populations of all three species has increased substantially over the past decade, possibly by as much as a factor of ten. There are also a small number of munjac deer, but far fewer than in the rest of England.

  18. Go through the gap and cross the field to a gateway with a stone stile behind a fence in the top corner of the field.

    The Rivel Allen is a major tributary of the River Camel, joining it just above the estuary near Wadebridge. It was known as the Dowr Alen in Cornish, which is documented as meaning "shining river". There is also a River Allen in Truro, although that one is Dowr Lain in Cornish, so as long as you speak Cornish, you won't get them confused!.

  19. Go through the gate if open or climb the fence and stile otherwise. Cross the field to the stile in the hedge opposite.

    Buzzards were once thought to be a threat to game birds and were actively shot. During the 1950s-60s, the combination of myxomatosis nearly wiping out one of their main food sources and use of pesticides such as DDT caused further decline in the buzzard population. Since then the population has gradually recovered and buzzards are now the commonest and most widespread bird of prey in the UK.

  20. Cross the stiles and footbridge to emerge onto a golf course. Watching out for golf balls, head between the white posts ahead to reach a track.

    In mediaeval times, golf balls were made from wood. In the 17th Century, the "featherie" was created, made from leather and stuffed with feathers. In the mid-1800s balls moulded from sap were the first to be mass-produced. They could also be heated and re-cast if they went out of shape from being hit. However people noticed that battle-scarred balls that had been used a long time seemed to fly more consistently. Golf ball manufacturers began etching different protrusions on the surfaces in attempts to improve the aerodynamics. The potential of a ball of elastic bands was discovered by a bored golfer waiting for a friend to finish work and by the 1890s, these were being coated in sap to make golf balls. In the early 1900s, it was found that indentations (rather than protrusions) on the surface resulted in better aerodynamics.

  21. Follow the grassy track a short distance uphill until you reach the first small grassy path to the left.

    Rabbits assist with the mowing of the golf course and might be about if there aren't many people around.

    If a rabbit is placed on its back and its legs are stroked, it appears to go into a relaxed trance and many owners of pet rabbits thought this was a cute thing to do that was enjoyable for the rabbit. It's now understood that this reaction, known as "tonic immobility", occurs when the rabbit is extremely stressed because it thinks it is about to be eaten by a predator! It is effectively a "playing dead" reaction to lull a predator into a false sense of security so the rabbit can make a sudden escape when the predator isn't paying attention.

  22. Turn left and follow the narrow path to emerge onto a track with a waymark pointing ahead across the grass.
  23. Cross the golf course (watch out for golf balls from the right) to the wooden fences opposite.

    An elm tree has been planted in Lanteglos as part of the Great British Elm Experiment.

    Dutch elm disease wiped out over 25 million elms in Britain but a small number of trees survived. Cuttings taken from mature trees that have survived Dutch elm disease for over 60 years (mostly wych and field elm) have been micro-propagated. The resulting saplings have been distributed to schools, community groups, local authorities and private landowners who have signed up to take part in The Great British Elm Experiment. It is hoped that a proportion of these trees may prove resistant to the disease. It's also likely that amongst the millions of small elms in the hedgerows, disease-resistant mutations will eventually occur.

  24. From the waymark, follow the path between the fences and over a stile to reach a lane.

    The ferns with solid leaves are appropriately called hart's tongue as the leaf resembles the tongue of a deer. It's an evergreen so leaves can be seen all year round but there's usually a flurry of new growth in mid March when new leaves can be seen gradually unfurling over a number of days. The Latin name for the species means "centipede" as the underside of the leaves have rows of brown spore cases that form a pattern resembling centipede legs. The plants thrive in shady places and are tolerant of the lime used in mortar so are sometimes found growing in old walls.

  25. Turn left on the lane and follow it to a gate on the left, into the churchyard.

    Lanteglos is a tiny settlement in the Allen Valley between Camelford and Delabole. The name Lanteglos is thought to be based on the Cornish words nans (valley) and eglos (church). The relative isolation of the location may indicate this was once a mediaeval monastery. An Anglo-Saxon font discovered in the nearby rectory garden is possibly one of the oldest in England and may further signify an early religious settlement at Lanteglos.

  26. Go through the gate into the churchyard and follow the path ahead, passing the church on your right, to reach the churchyard gate.

    Lanteglos church is, perhaps surprisingly given its proximity to Delabole, Camelford's official parish church. The distance may help to explain why Methodism was particularly popular in Camelford! The church is dedicated to St Julitta, to whom the mediaeval chapel at Tintagel Castle was also dedicated. Lanteglos church was used as the setting for the (aborted) wedding of the main characters in ITV's comedy drama series, Doc Martin.

    The churchyard contains a number of mediaeval wayside crosses rescued from nearby, and an unusual limbed cross that was once mounted on top of an inscribed stone, also in the churchyard. The stone is thought to date from somewhere between the 9th and 11th centuries and reads "Alseth and Generth wrought this family pillar for Aelwyne's soul and for themselves".

  27. Go through the gate onto the lane and turn left. Follow the lane over the bridge until you reach a junction, signposted to Trewalder.

    In early spring, the woodland is carpeted in wild garlic.

    Unlike their more versatile narrow-leaved cousins the three-cornered leeks, ramsons grow mainly in shady places such as woodland. Their broad leaves are solar panels that have evolved to capture the weak winter light early in the year before the trees are in leaf. They are an indicator that woodland is ancient and has provided a shady environment over a long period to colonise.

    Butterbur is recognisable by its bright green leaves which are shaped similar to a horse's foot (and is therefore sometimes confused with coltsfoot). Another plant with similar-shaped leaves is winter heliotrope although the leaves are smaller and have very round edges whereas butterbur leaves have slightly rougher, scalloped edges.

    When mature, butterbur has the largest leaves of any native plant in Britain, sometimes reaching 3 feet in diameter. The large leaves were used to wrap butter which gave rise to the plant's common name.

    The leaves of butterbur appear after the flowers have faded and so another common name for the plant is "lagwort".

    Butterbur has separate male and female plants and the female plants are taller, with larger flower spikes. The female plants are not common in the southwest, implying the more common male plants are likely to have been introduced since they don't stand much chance of producing seeds. The male plants can spread locally by forming new plants from its underground root system.

    The broadleaf trees along the lane include sycamore which thrives near streams as it needs a lot of water.

    Sycamore timber was traditionally used for milk pails as it does not impart any flavour or colour. It is still used today for kitchenware and is recognisable by the light colour and fine grain.

  28. Keep right at the junction and follow the lane past Castlegoff Cottage and Castlegoff Farm to a public footpath sign on the left, approximately 50 metres past Castlegoff Farm.

    One of the birds that you may see in the trees along the lane is the robin.

    The tradition of robins on Christmas cards is thought to arise from Victorian postmen wearing red jackets. Consequently they were nicknamed Robins.

  29. Climb a flight of stone steps and cross a stile into the field. Turn left and follow the left hedge to a pedestrian gate next to a field gate at the top of the field.

    The Ramblers Association and National Farmers Union suggest some "dos and don'ts" for walkers which we've collated with some info from the local Countryside Access Team.


    • Stop, look and listen on entering a field. Look out for any animals and watch how they are behaving, particularly bulls or cows with calves
    • Be prepared for farm animals to react to your presence, especially if you have a dog with you.
    • Try to avoid getting between cows and their calves.
    • Move quickly and quietly, and if possible walk around the herd.
    • Keep your dog close and under effective control on a lead around cows and sheep.
    • Remember to close gates behind you when walking through fields containing livestock.
    • If you and your dog feel threatened, work your way to the field boundary and quietly make your way to safety.
    • Report any dangerous incidents to the Cornwall Council Countryside Access Team - phone 0300 1234 202 for emergencies or for non-emergencies use the iWalk Cornwall app to report a footpath issue (via the menu next to the direction on the directions screen).


    • If you are threatened by cattle, don't hang onto your dog: let it go to allow the dog to run to safety.
    • Don't put yourself at risk. Find another way around the cattle and rejoin the footpath as soon as possible.
    • Don't panic or run. Most cattle will stop before they reach you. If they follow, just walk on quietly.
  30. Go through the gate and follow the left hedge to a stile in the far hedge, next to a gate.
  31. At this point, you can take a small diversion to the Castle Goff hillfort. To reach this, turn left through the gate and follow the right hedge to the gate in the corner of the field, returning to this point afterwards.
    To continue the walk, cross the stile and head across the field towards the pylon to reach a waymarked stile on the opposite side.

    The Castle Goff Scheduled Monument is located in a field between Lanteglos and Delabole. Castle Goff is a fine example of a small Iron Age hillfort, with an annex forming an extra line of defence on the west side. The original earthwork has a diameter of roughly 80 metres and is bounded by a 0.8 metre ditch surrounding an earth rampart some 3.5 metres high. Subsequently, more ramparts were added to the west of the structure but these have been largely lost over time. The small field containing it is open access land, and a permissive footpath connects it to the public footpath.

  32. Cross the stile and head towards the hedge opposite in the direction of the pylon, then bear left along the hedge and follow it around to a gate in the corner of the field.

    The semicircular hedge is the remains of the Delinuth Camp hillfort.

    Delinuth Camp is located near the Castle Goff Iron Age hill fort just outside Lanteglos. Delinuth Camp (also known as "The Rounds") was another Iron Age fortification, likely containing a settlement. Much of the rampart and ditch have been destroyed by ploughing but about half a metre of rampart remains with a diameter of about 150 metres.

  33. Climb over the static metal gate on the right and cross the stile behind it then turn right. Follow the path, passing through two gates, until it emerges onto a stony track crossing between the fields.

    A project to analyse blackberries picked from busy urban roadsides vs quiet rural lanes found that there was a slightly elevated level of lead in the blackberries from busy roadsides which is thought to have accumulated in the soil when leaded fuel was in common use. Surprisingly, commercial blackberries from supermarkets also showed higher levels of lead than the wild blackberries from rural lanes.

    Bramble flowers produce a lot of nectar so they attract bees and butterflies which spread the pollen between plants. One study found the bramble flowers as the fifth highest nectar producers out of the 175 species studied. Brimstone and Speckled Wood butterflies are particularly fond of bramble flowers.

    Bramble roots are perennial but its shoots last just two years. In the first year, the shoots grow vigorously (up to 8cm in one day!). In the second year, the shoots mature and send out side-shoots with flowers.

  34. Continue ahead onto the grassy track and follow this until it ends in a junction with another track.

    Water pepper, as the name implies, grows on wet ground such as on the margins of lakes. The plant has a number of common names including "smartarse". As Emma Gunn points out in her foraging book "Never Mind the Burdocks", this is nothing to do with being clever: in the past, the dried leaves were added to bedding to drive away fleas etc. and the name comes from rolling over on a leaf in the wrong way. The leaves can be used as a herb and have have a lemony flavour similar to sorrel followed by heat which is a little like chilli.

    Most of a large tree's trunk is actually made of dead wood known as "heartwood". Only the outer layers (known as sapwood) are actually active. The sapwood transport water and minerals up the tree from the roots to the leaves. The sapwood next to the heartwood gradually fills up with resin and then dies to create another strong layer heartwood which supports the increasing weight of the tree.

  35. Follow the track ahead until it ends at a tarmacked lane.

    As well as forgetting where they buried some of them, squirrels may also lose a quarter of their buried food to birds, other rodents and fellow squirrels. Squirrels therefore use dummy tactics to confuse thieves by sometimes just pretending to bury a nut.

  36. Turn left onto the lane and follow it past the farm and the track to Deli. Continue on the lane to the bottom of a valley and a short way up the other side until you reach a flight of steps on the left with a grey metal pole alongside.

    Deli Farm Charcuterie, based near Delabole, have won a number of awards for their produce which includes air-dried Salami, Coppa, Bresaola, Duck Prosciutto, Venison, Smoked Lamb and Pancetta. They have come a long way from their first experimental batch of salami made using an old smoker for a fermentation chamber cobbled together with a CPU fan and a light bulb and an old domestic fridge for an air drying room! Note the charcuterie is not open to the public and has no onsite shop, but you can buy their meats online or in one of the local farm shops.

  37. Climb the steps to the left and go through the gate then head across the field to a stile on the opposite side.

    Ribwort plantain is a common weed on cultivated land with long leaves and unmistakable black seed heads on the end of tall stalks often with a halo of white flowers. Generations of children have worked out that by knotting the stem, the seed head can be launched as a projectile at unsuspecting adults.

    A tea made from the leaves is a popular herbal remedy but care should be taken where the plant is harvested as it is not only highly tolerant of high metal levels in the soil but also accumulates these. It will even tolerate and accumulate arsenic which is normally toxic to plants. It therefore has the potential to be used for cleansing soils contaminated with mine waste.

  38. Cross the stile and head uphill, between the telegraph poles, to a stile.

    Dandelion is a corruption of the French dent de lion (lion's tooth), which is thought to refer to the shape of the leaves. The plant is a member of the sunflower family.

    The word "bramble" comes from bræmaz - a word of Germanic origin meaning "prickly". The study of brambles is involved enough to be considered a discipline of its own and is known as batology (from baton - the Ancient Greek word for blackberry).

  39. Cross the stile and head left slightly across the field to a stile in the fence.

    The Delabole wind farm was the first commercial wind farm in the UK, built in 1991 partly due to local opposition to a proposed nuclear power station which would have been somewhat suboptimal for the tourism on which Cornwall depends. In the 20 years since the Delabole wind farm was first built, the technology improved significantly. In 2011, the 10 original turbines were replaced with just 4 new models which are significantly more powerful and efficient. The cabling for the turbines is all underground and there are no access roads which allows the land beneath the turbines to be farmed.

  40. Cross the stile and go straight ahead to another stile.

    After copper was discovered on South Australia's Yorke Peninsula in 1859, large numbers of Cornish miners settled there. By 1875, the Moonta mine on the Yorke Peninsula had surpassed Cornwall as the largest copper producer in the British Empire and became the first mine to pay out dividends of one million pounds. As as result, 10% of the South Australian population is of Cornish descent and there is even a Delabole Quarry in Willunga, near Adelaide.

  41. Cross the stile and follow the left hedge to reach a kissing gate in the corner of the field.

    Despite being called red campion, its flowers are most definitely pink - varying quite widely in shade from vibrant deep pinks to very pale. The colour is produced by red anthrocyanin compounds which are also responsible for red autumn leaves and red tinges on new growth in some plants as well as flower colours. In red campion, the intensity of the colour is controlled by a pair of genes and several other genes control the exact balance of anthrocyanin compounds within the petals. These are passed down the generations and so pale pink parents are likely to produce pale pink offspring.

    Swanky beer was traditionally brewed six weeks before Christmas in Cornwall so it would be ready for the festivities. The beer is still brewed there on the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. One of the Cornish-descended South Australians - Jan Gluyas - kindly posted this recipe:

    Boil five gallons of water and add 8 oz hops, 4lb brown sugar, 8oz ground ginger, 4 oz raisins and an ounce of salt. Boil for 45 minutes, then empty into a vessel and let stand until nearly cold. Then add two tablespoons of fresh yeast and allow to stand for 15-18 hours. Strain off the liguor and allow it to stand for at least 24 hours before bottling, making sure the bottles are clean and dry. Into each bottle put one fresh raisin (to prime the swanky) - then fill and cork, making sure that each cork is securely tied down. Swanky is a great "worker" so leave enough room for its head to form. It is ready for drinking when the head is about to force the cork out of the bottle.
  42. Bear left through the kissing gate in the corner of the field. Follow the trail around the quarry until you reach a fork in the path.

    The working of the quarry is described in 1758 as follows: "The whole quarry is about three hundred yards long and one hundred wide: the deepest part from the grass is judged to be forty fathoms. The masses are first raised rough from the rock by wedges driven by sledges of iron, and contain from five to ten, twelve or fourteen feet, superficial square of stone: as soon as this mass is freed by one man, another stone-cutter, with a strong wide chisel and mallet, is ready to cleave it to its proper thin-ness, which is usually about the eighth of an inch; the shivers irregular from two feet long, and one foot wide, downwards, to one foot square and sometimes (though seldom) dividing into such large flakes as to make tables and tomb-stones. In this quarry several parties of men work on separate stages or floors, some twelve fathom from the grass, some twenty, others forty fathom deep, according to the portion of ground belonging to each party; the small shattery stone, not fit for covering houses, serves to shore up the rubbish, to divide the different allotments, and shape the narrow paths up and down the quarry; all the slate is carried with no small danger from the plot where it rises, on men's backs, which are guarded from the weight by a kind of leathern apron, or rather cushion; the carrier disposes his charge of stones in rows side by side, till the area allotted to his partners is full, and then horses are ready to take them off, and carry them by tale to the person that buys them."

  43. Keep right at the fork, along the edge of the quarry, until the path emerges onto a track, beside a waymark.

    The working in 1882 had changed with the advent of the steam engine: "The scene is enlivened by a throng of men busily engaged in various noisy employments, while waggons and horses are everywhere in rapid motion, and steam-engines are lifting with a harsh sound their ponderous arms, and raising loaded trucks from the depths of the pit, or masses of slate of several tons' weight, which are seen slowly ascending guide-chains to stages which overhang the quarry. The quarry is about 260 ft. in depth. Upon the edge of the quarry is the Papete Head, a projecting platform, from which a number of guide-chains are stretched like the shrouds of a ship to the base of the pit. The slate is first loosened by small charges of gunpowder ; it is then torn up by wedges and crowbars, and placed in trucks, which, being attached to a wheel which traverses a guide-chain, are drawn up by the steam-engine some feet above the Papete Head, Movable stages, called hatches or tables, are then run out under the trucks, which, being lowered upon a framework on wheels, are drawn away by horses to the different workshops, where the slate is split into various sizes, according to the purpose it is intended to serve. The water is pumped from the quarry by water-wheels into an adit, and the slate is shipped at the little harbours of Port Gaverne, Port Isaac, and Boscastle, the former being the principal port in the summer, the latter in the winter, as affording the best shelter to the vessels. About 1000 men are employed in these works, who raise on an average 120 tons of slate per day." ("Papete" is thought to be a local abbreviation of "Parapet").

  44. Cross the track to the path between the pieces of slate; follow the path along the fence, back to the car park.

    The layers of slate in the quarry were eloquently described in 1758: "The strata in the following order: the green sod, one foot; a yellow brown clay, two feet; then the rock, dipping inwards into the hill towards the south-west, and preserving that inclination from top to bottom: at first the rock is in a lax shattery state, with short and frequent fissures, the lamina of unequal thickness, and not horizontal: thus the rock continues to the depth of ten or twelve fathom, all which is good for nothing, and entirely to be rid off; then comes in a firmer brown stone, which becomes still browner in the air; this is fit for slating houses, and the largest size for flat pavement never sweating as the cliff slate, which is exposed to the sea air. This is called the top-stone, and continues for ten fathom deep, the stone improving somewhat as you sink, but not at the best till you come to twenty-four fathom deep from the grass; then rises what they call the bottom-stone, of a grey blue colour, and such a close texture, that on the touch it will sound clear, like a piece of metal. The principal horizontal fissures, which divide the strata, run from ten to fifteen feet asunder; they are no more than chinks or joints, and contain no heterogeneous fossil. The stone of this quarry weighs to water as 2-(62/121) are to 1, is not subject to rot or decay, to imbibe water, or split with falling, as the bottom-stone of Tintagel, and other quarries; but for its lightness, and enduring weather, is generally preferred to any slate in Great-Britain."

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