St Just to Nanquidno

A circular walk from St Just to Cape Cornwall and the Cot Valley where an ancient beach has been eroded from the cliffs at Porth Nanven releasing granite boulders resembling Dinosaur eggs.

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The walk heads across the fields from St Just past Cornwall's oldest pasty makers to England's only Cape. The walk follows the cliffs from Cape Cornwall to Porth Nanven and then to Nanquidno beach, both covered in granite boulders smoothed by a prehistoric ocean and lost beneath the soil when sea levels fell. The return route is via a permissive path to the Iron Age settlement at Nanjulian and then across the fields across the top of the Cot Valley.


  • Route includes paths close to unfenced cliff edges.


One of our favourite walks and one we’ve done so many times and never tire of it.

Vital statistics

  • OS Explorer: 102
  • Distance: 7.4 miles/11.8 km
  • Steepness grade: Moderate
  • Recommended footwear: Walking boots, or shoes in summer

OS maps for this walk

Click or tap on map for more info (blue=laminated)


  • Heinz monument and St Helen's Oratory on Cape Cornwall
  • Ballowall cairn - a prehistoric tomb
  • Granite boulders at Porth Nanven and Nanquidno sculpted by a prehistoric ocean
  • Views over Whitsand Bay to Sennen Cove and Land's End
  • Wildlife including choughs and peregrine falcons

Pubs on or near the route

  • The Kings Arms
  • The Star Inn
  • The Wellington Hotel


  1. Facing towards the Fire Station, turn right out of the car park and follow the road past the phone box and a few paces further until you reach a gap between the houses on the left.

    The lane continues past the Laundrette to meet the main road at the village square and St Just church is on the opposite side.

    The churchyard at St Just is thought to date to early mediaeval times. The current building dates from 1334 and was substantially rebuilt and extended in the 15th Century. The granite stone with Celtic carvings that is built into the wall was once a cross shaft and is thought to date from the 9th Century. The paintings in the church date from the 15th Century, and the small stone basin beside the font was found in St Helen's Oratory on Cape Cornwall.

    The church is dedicated to St Jestyn, in common with St-Just-in-Roseland (hence the two identical place names) and also the chapel in Gorran Haven, which was formerly known as Portheast (thought to be a corruption of Porth Just).

    The upright stone in St Just church is thought to be from around the 5th or 6th Century and has a Latin inscription which translates to "here lies Selus". It is thought that this commemorates St Selevan (also known as St Levan) who was recorded as being the brother of St Jestyn (St Just). As well as the church and chapel of St Levan near Porthcurno, it is also postulated that Lansallos near Polperro may be dedicated to the same saint. During mediaeval times, the stone was built into the church wall by the altar but it was extracted during the restoration in 1824.

  2. If you don't have a dog with you, bear left to some steps at the back of the parking area, to the right of the lamp post. Climb the steps and bear right across the grass to the gateway beside the clock tower. If you have a dog, continue on the lane and turn left to reach the clock tower instead.

    The circular grassy area is a mediaeval meeting area and amphitheatre known as a plain-an-gwarry (Playing Place) where "miracle plays" were performed, re-enacting miracles performed by the Saints. These were described as "often noisy, bawdy and entertaining". Plays are still occasionally performed here. It is over 600 years old and thought to be the oldest outdoor theatre in Britain that is still in use.

  3. Bear left around the clock tower and cross the road to the narrow lane between the Cape Cornwall and Boswedden Road signs. Follow Boswedden Road to a crossroads.

    The clock tower was built as a memorial to the men of the town who died in the First World War. However, it was not completed until 1931 and it is thought that this may be due to the time taken to raise the funds. Within 8 years of its completion, the Second World War began, and tablets with more names were subsequently added to the tower.

  4. At the crossroads, continue ahead to reach a bend in the road where a path carries on ahead.

    For many years, the pasties for Warren's Bakery were made here. Closure of the factory was announced in 2019 as part of a restructure after the company made a loss of nearly £1 million.

    Warren's Bakery was established in St Just in 1860 and is Britain's oldest pasty maker. At the time of writing, the bakery has 50 shops throughout the West Country and there are plans to expand further afield.

  5. Follow the path ahead from the bend. Continue on the path between the two walls, ignoring any footpaths that lead off to the sides, until the path ends at a gate and stone stile.

    "Pasty" was another word used for "pie" throughout England from the Middle Ages onward, and did not necessarily imply the characteristic shape and crimping we associate with the Cornish Pasty. A pasty recipe from 1746 contains no veg, just meat (venison), port wine and spices. The first "Cornish pasty" recipe is from 1861 which contained just beef and no veg.

    The "traditional" Cornish Pasty recipe contains beef, onion, potato and swede (referred to as "turnip" in the local dialect from its more formal name of "Swedish turnip") seasoned with salt and pepper. It's thought that this probably dates from the late 18th Century (when the Poldark novels were set) when potatoes and turnips were a staple diet for the poor but the first documented "traditional" recipe is not until 1929.

    Even during Victorian times, main meat available to poor people would have been pork. In fact, the really poor had "tiddy oggy" (with no meat at all). The Cornish word for pasty is "hogen" (pronounced "hugg-un") which evolved into "oggy" - the dialect word for pasty. Over 120 million Cornish pasties are now consumed each year.

  6. Cross the stile next to the gate and cross the field towards the gate in the opposite corner.

    Tin lodes to the west of St Just were first recorded as being worked in 1782, initially via several small mines which were eventually amalgamated in Victorian times under the name Wheal Cunning. The workings extended beneath the sea near Cape Cornwall, where it was hoped as in the Levant and Botallack mines, the lodes would become richer. In this case however, the seaward excavations proved poorly productive and the mine closed in 1876.

  7. Cross the stile next to the gate and follow along the left hedge to a stile consisting of stone footholds roughly three-quarters of the way along the hedge.

    The number of cows in Cornwall has been estimated at around 75,000 (a lot of moo is needed for the cheese and clotted cream produced in Cornwall) so there's a good chance of encountering some in grassy fields.

    The Ramblers Association and National Farmers Union suggest some "dos and don'ts" for walkers which we've collated with some info from the local Countryside Access Team.


    • Stop, look and listen on entering a field. Look out for any animals and watch how they are behaving, particularly bulls or cows with calves
    • Be prepared for farm animals to react to your presence, especially if you have a dog with you.
    • Try to avoid getting between cows and their calves.
    • Move quickly and quietly, and if possible walk around the herd.
    • Keep your dog close and under effective control on a lead around cows and sheep.
    • Remember to close gates behind you when walking through fields containing livestock.
    • If you and your dog feel threatened, work your way to the field boundary and quietly make your way to safety.
    • Report any dangerous incidents to the Cornwall Council Countryside Access Team - phone 0300 1234 202 for emergencies or for non-emergencies use the iWalk Cornwall app to report a footpath issue (via the menu next to the direction on the directions screen).


    • If you are threatened by cattle, don't hang onto your dog: let it go to allow the dog to run to safety.
    • Don't put yourself at risk. Find another way around the cattle and rejoin the footpath as soon as possible.
    • Don't panic or run. Most cattle will stop before they reach you. If they follow, just walk on quietly.
  8. Cross the stile on the left via the footholds and then cross the field to the stepped stone stile opposite.
  9. Climb the steps and walk along the wall a short distance to reach the descending flight of steps. At the bottom, follow along the right hedge to reach a stepped stone stile in the far hedge.

    In August, blackberries start to ripen on brambles.

    According to folklore, you should not pick blackberries after Michaelmas Day (11th October) as this is when the devil claims them. The basis for this is thought to be the potentially toxic moulds which can develop on the blackberries in the cooler, wetter weather.

  10. Climb the steps over the wall and turn right onto the lane. Follow the lane to a bend with a stone stile on the left, marked with an upright scaffold pole.
  11. Cross the stone stile and cross the corner of the field to the gap in the middle of the hedge opposite, below the telegraph pole.

    The stiles in Cornwall that consist of rectangular bars of granite resembling a cattle grid are known as "coffen" (coffin) stiles. These often occur on footpaths leading to churches such the Zennor Churchway. The mini cattle grids are fairly effective at containing livestock and were significantly easier for coffin-bearers to navigate than stiles crossing walls. They are more frequently found in West Cornwall but there are a few in East Cornwall too such as either side of Advent Church.

  12. Go through the gap and turn right to follow along the wall on the right and reach a stone stile in the far hedge.

    Ribwort plantain is a common weed on cultivated land with unmistakable black seed heads on the end of tall stalks often with a halo of white flowers. Generations of children have worked out that by knotting the stem, the seed head can be launched as a projectile at unsuspecting adults.

    A tea made from the leaves is a popular herbal remedy used as a cough medicine. Care should be taken where the plant is harvested as it is not only highly tolerant of high metal levels in the soil but also accumulates these. It will even tolerate and accumulate arsenic which is normally toxic to plants. It therefore has the potential to be used for cleansing soils contaminated with mine waste.

  13. Cross the stile and turn left onto the lane. Follow the lane until you reach a driveway for The Forge on the right opposite the entrance to the National Trust car park on the left.

    The grand house that you pass on the right is Porthledden.

    Porthledden was built by Francis Oats, a local man who was a mine captain by his early twenties and went on to make his fortune in the gold fields and diamond mines of South Africa, becoming the Chairman of De Beers within 3 years of joining the company as a mining engineer. Porthledden was completed in 1909, towards the end of his life, and was run as a hotel by his son after his death. As the family was heavily invested in Cornish mines and the hotel was not that successful, the family debts mounted and eventually they had to sell off the house. Towards the end of the 20th century it became derelict until it was bought in 2003 by a young couple who had built a successful company in the .com boom with a website about hotels, ironically. The restoration of the house took them 10 years and had to be approached as a maritime engineering project due to the salt-laden winds that blow over the Cape that would corrode any materials that are not marine grade.

  14. Bear right onto the driveway to The Forge and cross the stile beneath the waymark. Follow along the wall on the left to reach a gap in the wall opposite. Then bear right to pass the ruins of an old chapel and reach a stone stile in the corner, to the left of the gate.

    The small ruined building in the field next to The Forge is St Helen's Oratory.

    St Helen's Oratory is thought to be on the site of a 6th century church and the font in St Just church might have originally come from here. In the mid-19th Century, an ancient cross was discovered on the site with markings that were in use during the 4th and 5th centuries. A small stone basin was also found and this is now inside St Just church. The cross has since been lost; according to one account, it was thrown down the St Just vicarage well! The cross that is now on the chapel is another ancient one that was found nearby.

  15. Cross the stile and follow either of the paths to reach the monument on the summit (the left-hand path marked as the coast path is the less steep of the two).

    In 1889, the steamship Malta ran aground at full speed on the rocks offshore of the Kenidjack Valley, in dense fog. The crew and passengers were all rescued by the Sennen lifeboat. A court found the captain's navigation to be substandard and suspended his licence for three months. The cargo included copper, tin and iron and has been heavily salvaged but copper ingots still turn up occasionally.

  16. Bear left to pass the monument and reach a rock platform on the cliff-edge, then turn left to follow the path descending from the rock platform to the cottages and reach a gap between two walls.

    Cape Cornwall is the only headland in England referred to as a "cape" and one of the only two in the UK (the other is Cape Wrath in Scotland). According to some sources, Cape Cornwall was once thought to be the most westerly point of the mainland, although most maps from the 16th Century onward clearly show Lands End as protruding further west. The name Cape Cornwall first appeared on maritime charts in Tudor times though on some maps it was marked as "Chapel Just". The Cornish name for the headland is the topographically-inspired Kilgodh Ust which has been translated as "goose-back at St Just" and eloquently describes the view from the headland at the bottom of the Kenidjack Valley.

    There is a lookout on the seaward side of Cape Cornwall which is manned by volunteers from the National Coastwatch Institution and during Victorian times, there was a tin mine on the headland which operated intermittently between 1838 and 1883. The mine's chimney near the peak of the cape was retained as an aid to navigation, and during a period in the early 20th century, the former ore dressing floors were converted into greenhouses and wineries. In 1987, the headland was purchased by the Heinz corporation and gifted to the nation, to be managed by the National Trust. The chimney is marked with a commemorative plaque and is now known as the Heinz monument.

  17. Follow the path through the gap between the walls and bear left onto the track. Follow the track to a gate.

    The Hottentot Fig (Carpabrotus edulis), was once classified as a Mesembryanthemum but as plant genetics were better understood, was found to be a close relative but in a different sub-family of the larger ice-plant family. They are called ice plants due to hairs on the leaves which refract sunlight and make them sparkle. The plant is native to South Africa and was originally grown ornamentally in gardens but has subsequently gone feral and settled on the coastline where it thrives in sandy soils, helped by its resistance to wind. It forms a dense mat which crowds out other species and is therefore considered invasive.

    The reason that Cape Cornwall could once have been thought to be be most westerly point of the British mainland it that is almost is. The tip of Cape Cornwall is further west than the coastguard lookout overlooking Sennen Cove and the shipwreck near Land's End.

    In fact, the longitude of Cape Cornwall's most westerly point is approximately equivalent to the exit from the Land's End coach parking area. The most westerly point on Dr Syntax's head is only about 450 metres further west than this.

  18. Go through the gap next to the gate and turn right down the steps. Follow the path to meet a tarmacked track from the beach at a waymark. Turn left at the waymark and follow the tarmac track until it ends in a junction with a gravel track at a waymark.

    Priest's Cove has nothing to do with the clergy and everything to do with misspelling. The cove was originally known as Porth Ust (St Just Cove) which was shortened locally to "Por Ust". At some point, "Por Ust Cove" was misrecorded on Ordnance Survey maps as "Priest Cove" and the name stuck.

    The beach is rocky at all states of the tide, with shingle at the top of the beach and boulders and rock platforms further down the beach. As the tide goes out, numerous rockpools are revealed. One area of rocks has been dammed to create a small seawater swimming pool for children.

  19. Turn right onto the track and follow it uphill to the cottages. Continue uphill on the stony track to where it passes through a gateway with a huge stone stile alongside.

    Three-cornered leeks grow along the wall beside the track.

    During late winter or early spring, if you encounter a patch of plants with white bell-shaped flowers, smelling strongly of onions, and with long, narrow leaves then they are likely to be three-cornered leeks. Once you're familiar with their narrow, ridged leaves, you'll be able to spot these emerging from late October onwards.

    All parts of the plant are edible by humans and the flavour of the leaves is relatively mild so they can be used in recipes in place of spring onions or chives. They are at their best for culinary use from November to April. By mid-May, they have flowered and the leaves are starting to die back.

    The long leaves can be mistaken for bluebells or daffodils which are both poisonous but do not smell of onions. However, fingers that have previously picked 3-cornered leeks also smell of onions and so mistakes have been made this way.

    The Atlantic is the second largest ocean, covering 20% of the Earth's surface. Its formation began roughly 135 million years ago in the Cretaceous period when the American continents started to move away from Europe and Africa. The tectonic plates are still moving - North America gets an an average of inch further away each year.

  20. Pass through the gateway and bear left onto the tarmacked lane. Follow this past a trig. point on the left until you reach a large circular stone cairn on the right with an information board.
  21. Turn right and follow the path around the cairn and the small path leading from the opposite side to reach a path along the coast.

    Ballowall Cairn was discovered in Victorian times after it had been buried under mine tips. It contained a number of burial cists with artefacts dating right back to the Stone Age but others were found from the Bronze Age implying it was in use for thousands of years. The site was excavated in the 19th Century after miners' tales of strange lights and fairies and some reconstruction work was carried out as part of the excavation. Unfortunately many of the finds that were reported from the original excavation of the site have also been lost, possibly into private collections. A Roman coin was found in one of the cists which may indicate that the site was still in use after the Bronze Age.

    More about the Ballowall barrow

  22. When you reach the coastal path, turn left and follow it until you reach a junction with another large path from the left.
  23. Continue ahead at the junction and follow the path down into the valley to reach a small granite waymark at a junction of paths.

    Shafts which are fenced and completely open are one of the favourite nesting places of bats and the Cornish chough. Therefore resist the temptation to drop stones down the shafts otherwise you may unknowingly be stoning bats or chough chicks to death.

  24. Continue ahead on the bridleway until the path ends on a lane beside a footpath sign.
  25. Turn right onto the lane and follow it to the end to reach a granite post on the left with paths leading down to a footbridge, just before the barrier where the lane ends.

    Porth Nanven is also known as "Dinosaur Egg Beach" due to the ovoid granite boulders. The boulders were smoothed into this shape by the sea when sea levels were much higher and then trapped on the land when sea levels dropped, becoming buried under the topsoil. The sea has slowly eroded the land and freed the trapped boulders which you can see embedded in the cliffs behind the beach. Souvenir collecting was causing depletion of the smaller boulders so they are now protected; removing them is an offence which would result in a criminal record.

    More about Porth Nanven

  26. Follow the path from the granite post across the footbridge over the stream. Then keep left and follow the path upwards to reach an area of flat rock where the path joins an inland path.
  27. When you reach the area of flat rock at the top of the climb, continue ahead to follow the path along the coast and reach a granite waymark on a rock outcrop.

    Lizards are cold-blooded so they need to bask in the sun to warm up to their "operating temperature" which is around 30 Celcius. They usually do so with an area of cover nearby which forms an escape route from predators. You're therefore likely to encounter them in sunny spots on footpaths and footbridges. Once they spot you, they will usually make a hasty escape - they can move pretty quickly once they are warmed-up. During winter they hibernate as in cold temperatures they are too slow to catch any food (insects, spiders etc. which are also less numerous over the winter).

  28. Keep right at the waymark to follow the coast path and continue to reach a wooden waymark.

    Choughs sometimes nest along this stretch of coast.

    The chough is a member of the crow family, with striking red legs and a red beak. They are also recognisable from feathers, spread like fingers, on their wing tips. It was known as the "Crow of Cornwall" and appears on the county coat of arms. The birds have a loud, distinctive "chee-ow" call which is perhaps best described as resembling a squeaky dog toy! Once you've heard it a couple of times, you'll be able recognise them from the sound long before you can see them.

  29. Turn left at the waymark and follow the path uphill to a granite waymark.

    The name "chough" is from the bird's call although this is not that accurate as "chough" is more like the sound a jackdaw makes (a very short "chu"). Locally, choughs were known as "chaws" which is a better representation of their (much longer) sound.

    The old Cornish name for the bird is Palores, meaning digger, which is thought to be a description of it rooting for invertebrates.

    The scientific name (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) means "fire crow" which is likely to be an allusion to its red bill and legs. This possibly also relates to the birds' mischievous reputation during the Tudor and Elizabethan periods for stealing lighted candles or embers and dropping these onto roofs, which were generally thatched in Cornwall at this time.

  30. Turn right at the waymark and follow the path to a junction of paths at the top of the cliff.

    The pair of rocks roughly a mile off the coast near Cape Cornwall are known as The Brisons which is from the French word brisant meaning "reef". They are part of a reef system that extends all the way from Gribba Point (Pen an Gribow in Cornish which is from the word krib, meaning "reef"). The smaller rock has a large protruding "nose" whilst the larger rock is more rotund and consequently the pair have been described as forming the profile of General Charles de Gaulle lying on his back.

  31. Bear right to follow the path along the coast. Continue to reach a granite waymark where another path joins, beside a gap in a wall.

    In 1851, the ship "New Commercial" ran aground in a storm on the reef of The Brisons and was wrecked. The crew managed to climb onto the rocks but six of these were swept off the rocks by the huge waves. Of the three remaining, one managed with great skill and courage to build a makeshift raft from the wreckage and paddle this into Whitesand Bay where he was rescued by local fishermen. The remaining two on the rocks were the captain and his wife, who couldn't swim and was wearing only a nightdress. They remained there for two days until a rescue boat reached them and fired a rocket line. Both were rescued but the captain's wife - Mary Sanderson - sadly died of exposure in the rescue boat before she could be brought ashore, and is buried in Sennen churchyard. As a result of the tragedy, the Sennen lifeboat was established.

  32. Keep right through the gap in the wall and follow the path. Continue through a kissing gate and up the rough stone steps to reach the top of the next headland.
  33. Continue along the coast over the next hill and descend via a waymark to reach a kissing gate near a walled mineshaft.

    As you descend to the mineshaft, the rock outcrop on the cliffs below is known as Carn Ding Dong.

  34. Go through the gate and follow the path down the valley to a footbridge.
  35. Cross the two footbridges and continue ahead. When you reach a junction of paths, keep right up the steps. Climb the steps to emerge on a path beside a Nanjulian National Trust sign.

    The beach is known either as Nanquidno or Nanjulian beach. There are some grassy areas just above the rocky beach which make good picnic spots. According to some sources, the beach is reported as being sometimes popular with naturists. Given that the beach consists entirely of granite boulders, this seems unlikely to be comfortable, especially in strong sunshine when the rocks can get rather hot.

  36. At the top of the steps, turn right and follow the coast path past the Nanjulian sign. Continue until you reach a fork in the path with a sign for a permissive path.

    During Victorian times, ravens were exterminated by farmers and gamekeepers throughout much of the UK but retained a stronghold in the southwest. Their nests, constructed of robust twigs, can be seen along the cliffs in Cornwall.

  37. At the fork, bear left up the permissive path to Nanjulian. Follow the path until you reach a gate into a field.

    Researchers have found that ravens use gesture to communicate in a similar way to humans. Obviously ravens don't have hands so instead they point with their beaks to indicate an object to another bird, just as we do with our fingers. They also hold up an object in their beak to get another bird's attention.

  38. Go through the gate and head straight up the field to a stone stile in the corner of the hedge.

    The carpets of tiny blue flowers on the coast during April and May are the appropriately-named spring squill, which up close is a star-shaped pale blue flower with a dark blue stamen. They achieve their early flowering by storing energy over the winter in a bulb so they can be the first flowers out on the cliffs before they become overshadowed by larger plants. They thrive in locations which are beaten with wind and salt-laden spray which they are able to tolerate but other plants, which might otherwise out-compete them, cannot.

    The interdependency between plants and pollinating insects is thought to have accelerated the formation of new species (i.e. a group where members can only reproduce successfully with other members from that group, not from other groups) both for the plants and for the insects. This is thought to explain why there are a few hundred species of conifer but a few hundred thousand species of flowering plant. This has allowed flowering plants to become highly specialised for habitat niches (e.g. salty coastline) and so dominate many of them.

  39. Cross the stile and bear left across the field initially towards the gateway, then just before this bear right to keep the wall on your left and follow it to a corner with a stone stile.

    As you cross the (first) stile, if you turn around, there is a panoramic view which includes Sennen Cove and the Longships lighthouse. The rock outcrop on the other side of the small gate onto the coast at the top of the field, called Carn Creagle, is also known as "The Watch" for this reason.

  40. Cross the stile and follow the left hedge to a gateway ahead in the far hedge.

    The Longships Lighthouse is located just over a mile off Land's End on the highest of the islets known as Carn Bras. The original tower built in 1795 was 40ft high, perched on the 39ft high rock but despite the lantern being nearly 80ft above the sea, it was sometimes obscured by the huge waves off Lands End. A new taller tower was therefore constructed starting in 1869 and completed in 1873 and was manned until 1988. The current lantern emits a white flash seaward, but red-tinted glass colours the light for any vessel straying to the headlands to the north or south.

  41. Go through the gateway ahead and follow the right hedge to another gateway.

    The stony area on the left-hand side of the field is the remains of a prehistoric settlement.

    The settlement consisted of a cluster of five houses, each with a courtyard; four of which are around a central enclosed area. It is thought that the central area might have been a community public space. There is also the remains of an underground chamber (fogou), although this one appears to be partially above-ground. Artefacts at the site dates from the Iron Age but it also shows signs of occupation in Roman times. It is possible that the structure of the settlement may have evolved over the centuries as houses with courtyards are more typical of the Roman period.

  42. Go through the gateway and cross the field to the gateway opposite.

    In late spring and summer, swallows can often be seen swooping over the fields here.

    Swallows migrate to India, Arabia and Africa for the winter. Journeys of over 7000 miles have been recorded.

    Birds are technically considered reptiles and the only surviving group of dinosaurs as they are the descendants of the group known as theropods (that Tyrannosaurus rex belonged to). The oldest bird fossils are about 150 million years old and looked like small, feathered dinosaurs with sharp teeth.

  43. Go through the gateway and bear left very slightly down the middle of the field to reach a track on the far side leading out of the field. Follow this to a gate.
  44. Go through the gate and follow the track to a footbridge.

    The settlement of Nanjulian was recorded in 1428 as Nanshelen and is thought to be from the Cornish word elin meaning "elbow", as well as the word for "valley". The name perhaps refers to the bend in the course of the river and its associated valley near Nanjulian Mill where it turns to meet the sea.

  45. Cross the bridge and turn right onto the lane. Follow it uphill until you reach a public footpath sign, marking tracks either side of the lane.

    Clapper bridges are an ancient form of bridge built out of stone slabs spanning piers in the river. Most were built during mediaeval times, often beside a ford where horses and carts would cross. There is disagreement over the origin of the word "clapper". One candidate is an Anglo-Saxon word cleaca meaning "a bridge of stepping stones". Another is a mediaeval Latin word clapus which is is thought to have originated in Celtic Western Europe and mean "pile of stones".

    The settlement of Nanquidno was first recorded in 1327 as Nansgwynyou. The name is based on the Cornish words nans (valley) and gwynn (white).

  46. Turn left at the footpath sign and follow the track uphill to a pedestrian gate before the track reaches a farm gate.

    In the field on the right are the remains of a prehistoric settlement from the Bronze Age or Iron Age. Not much is now left - just a few earth banks and hut circles.

    The low stone walls remaining as hut circles were once the foundations of a round house. The granite foundations were likely to have been set into cob (mud and straw) walls which provided insulation and draft exclusion over bare-stone walls. A conical thatched roof on a timber frame rested on top of the walls. Heating was via a central fire which required some care with the thatched roof - presumably roof fires were not unheard of! These buildings varied in size from a just over a metre in diameter up to 10 metres. Some had walled enclosures attached and a few also had internal partitions.

  47. Go through the pedestrian gate and cross the field to the open gateway ahead (to the right of the barns).

    Despite the proximity to a prehistoric settlement, the rocket-shaped standing stone in the centre of the field is much more likely to be a cattle rubbing stone erected in the 19th century. There are a number of these in West Cornwall. In particular, near Lamorna Cove, there is a group of fields with one in the centre of each.

  48. Go through the gateway and continue straight ahead to cross the field diagonally to the gate in the corner.
  49. Cross the stone stile to the left of the gate and turn left onto the lane. Follow the lane until you reach a public footpath sign beside a waymarked stone stile on the right.
  50. Cross the stile and continue straight ahead across the field to a stone stile in the right-hand hedge.
  51. Cross the stile and turn left. Follow along the left hedge to reach a stile in the corner of the field.
  52. Cross the stile and follow the left hedge of the field to a stone stile.
  53. Cross the stile, and the one after it, then follow the right hedge of the field to a waymarked stile in the far hedge.
  54. Cross the stile and follow the right hedge to a gap in the far hedge.

    In spring, some of the fields here are sometimes planted with daffodils.

    Growing daffodils has been an important industry in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly for over a century. When the Great Western Railway reached Cornwall, this provided a means to export perishable goods such as fresh flowers and fish which previously would not have survived the long journey by boat or horse and cart. Out of respect for the dead, coffins were transported by the railway for free. It was therefore not unheard of for coffins filled with daffodils to arrive in London from Cornwall.

    Daffodils contain chemical compounds which are toxic to dogs, cats and humans and ingestion of any part of a daffodil is likely to cause a stomach upset e.g. when unsupervised children have eaten leaves. The bulbs have both higher concentrations and a broader range of toxins than the rest of the plant and can be mistaken for onions (although don't smell of onion).

  55. Continue through the gap, initially along the right hedge, and then straight ahead to reach a stone stile in the hedge ahead.

    The stile you pass in the right hedge is for a path leading to Kelynack.

    In English we often add a -y ending to a noun to turn it into an adjective; for example "rock" becomes "rocky". For many of the nouns imported from French, we add "-ic" (acidic, magnetic, artistic...). The equivalent in Cornish is to add -ack or -ek to the end of the word. Thus meynek is "stony" (men is stone), stennack means "tinny" (sten is tin).

    Kelynn is the Cornish word for holly which means that kelynnek is ... harder to express succinctly in English ("abounding in holly" or possibly "holly-tastic").

  56. Cross the stile and continue straight ahead across the field to a stone stile in the hedge opposite.

    The settlement to the left is called Hendra.

    Hendra is a common Cornish place name meaning "home farm" (from the Cornish word hendre which itself is based on the words hen meaning old, and dre is equivalent to tre). Hendra was also used as a boy's first name with the meaning literally "from the family farm".

  57. Cross the stile and bear left slightly to a stone stile in the hedge opposite.
  58. Cross the stile and bear right to a gap in the hedge to the right of the gateway.
  59. Cross the cattle-grid-like stile in the gap in the hedge and cross the field to a waymark beside the telegraph pole in the bottom-left corner of the field.
  60. Cross the stile beside the waymark and follow the path until it emerges down some steps onto a lane.
  61. Turn left onto the lane to reach a waymark and then cross the stile on the right beside it. Bear left down the field to a gap in the hedge ahead.
  62. Go through the gap and bear left to the gap on the left side of the fence in front of the telegraph pole in the next field. Go down the steps, through the kissing gate and bear left to the stile beside the telegraph pole.
  63. Cross the stile and bear right to cross the field diagonally to a stile in the top corner.
  64. Cross the stile and follow the left hedge to reach a kissing gate and stile.
  65. Go through the gate and cross the stile to reach a narrow lane. Follow this until it ends at a junction.
  66. Keep left at the junction and follow the road until you reach a sign for Cot Valley and Cape Cornwall, opposite a junction on the right.
  67. Turn right opposite the Cot Valley sign to return to the car park.

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